Chapter 6&7 Test Review

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  1. Largest organ of the body?
    skin, 15% of body weight)
  2. Epidermis
    stratified squamous epithelium, contains 5 layers
  3. Dermis
    connective tissue layer, 0.6 -3 mm thick
  4. Normal thickness of skin?
    1-2mm, up to 6mm
  5. Thicker skin
    palms and soles has thicker stratum corneum, no hair follicles or sebaceous glands
  6. Only found in thick skin?
    stratum lucidum
  7. Stratum basale
    single layer of cuboidal or low columnar cells sitting on basement membrane
  8. Cell types in Stratum basale?
    keratinocytes and melanocytes
  9. Merkel cells
    are touch receptors associated with nerve fibers to from merkel disc
  10. Stratum spinosum
    contains dendrites (Langerhans) cells, protects against pathogens by presenting them to the immune system
  11. Stratum granulosum
    3 to 5 layers of flat keratinocytes, contains keratinohyalin granules, produce lipid filled vesicles that release a glycolipid to waterproof skin
  12. Stratum lucidum
    thin translucent zone only seen in thick skin, packed with eleidin, cells have no nucleus, up to 30 layers
  13. Layers of Dermis (Papillary layer)
    is areolar tissue and dermal palpillae from upper 1/5 of the dermis
  14. Layers of Dermis (Reticular layer)
    is deeper part of dermis 4/5
  15. Function of hypodermis
    Energy storage and thermal insulation
  16. Skin colors (Hemoglobin)
    red pigment of red blood cells, visible through collagen fibers
  17. Skin colors (Carotene)
    yellow pigment of vegetables and egg yolks, in stratum corneum and subcu fat
  18. Skin colors (Melanin)
    produced by melanocytes
  19. Cyanosis
    is blueness resulting from deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood (cold weather)
  20. Erythema
    is redness due to dilated cutaneous vesels (anger, sunburn, embarassment)
  21. Jaundice
    is yellowing of skin and sclera due to excess of bilirubin in blood
  22. Bronzing
    is a golden brown color of Addison disease (deficiency of glucocorticoid hormone)
  23. Pallor
    is pale color from lack of blood flow
  24. Albinism
    is a genetic lack of melanin
  25. Hematoma
    is a bruise
  26. Hemangiomas
    birthmarks, discolored skin caused by benign tumors of dermal blood
  27. Freckles and moles
    aggregation of melanocytes, freckles are flat, moles are elevated
  28. Flexion lines form?
    in wrist and elbow
  29. Water soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  30. Stratum corneum composition?
    pliable soft keratin
  31. Hair and nails are composed of hard keratin toughened by?
    disulfide bridges between molecules
  32. Lanugo
    fine, unpigmented fetal hair
  33. Vellus
    fine, unpigmented hair of children and women
  34. Terminal hair
    coarse, long pigmented hair of scalp
  35. Hair is filament of?
    keratinized cells
  36. Shaft is visible?
    above skin
  37. Root is visible
    below within follicle
  38. Bulb
    is swelling in base where hair originates
  39. Vascular tissue in Bulb?
    provide nutrients
  40. Texture of different kinds of hair?
    straight hair is round, wavy is oval, kinky is flat
  41. Hair color is due to?
    melanin pigment
  42. What epithelial root sheath lies next to hair follicle?
  43. What connective tissue root sheath surrounds hair follicle?
  44. Mitosis of growth of Hair in?
    stratum basale of epithelial root sheath
  45. Hair grows?
    1mm every 3 days for 2-4 years
  46. Hair grows (dormant phase)?
    3-4 months
  47. Eyelashes and Eyebrows?
    only grow for 3-4 months
  48. Hirsutism
    abnormal hairiness in children or women
  49. Nails?
    clear hard derivative of stratum corneum
  50. Nail grows?
    1mm per week
  51. Nail mitosis in?
    nail matrix
  52. Sweat per day?
  53. Aporcine glands?
    produce sweat containing fatty acids, only found near hair follicles, and respond to stress and sex, odor produced by fatty acid bacteria
  54. Sebaceous gland?
    flask shaped gland with duct that opens hair follicle
  55. Basal cell carcinoma?
    arises from cells of the stratum basale and invades dermis
  56. Squamous cell carcinoma?
    arises from keratinocytes in the stratum spinosa
  57. Malignant melanoma?
    arises form melanocytes of a pre-existing mole
  58. A,B,C,D
    asymmetry, border irregular, color mixed, diameter over 6mm
  59. 1st Degree Burn
    only the epidermis (red, painful, and edema)
  60. 2nd Degree Burn
    epidermis and part of dermis (blistered)
  61. 3rd Degree Burn
    epidermis, dermis, and more is destroyed
  62. Chemical in sunscreen which damage?
    PABA, zinc oxide, titanium oxide
  63. Autograft
    tissue from different region of patient
  64. Isograft
    skin graft tissue from identical twin
  65. Homograft
    graft from unrelated person
  66. Heterograft
    tissue from another species
  67. Amnion from
    an afterbirth
  68. Artificial skin graft
    silicon and collagen
  69. Temporary graft options
    homograft, heterograft, amnion, artificial graft
  70. External and internal surfaces of flat bone are composed of?
    compact bone
  71. Middle layer of bone?
    spongy bone (no marrow cavity)
  72. Is cylinder of compact bone containing marrow cavity, and lined with endosteum?
    Shaft (diaphysis)
  73. Are spongy bone covered with a layer of compact bone?
  74. Joint surfaces are covered with?
  75. Remainder of bone covered with?
  76. Where do osteogenic cells reside?
    endosteum and periosteum, where they multiply and differentiate into osetoblasts
  77. Osteoblasts form what?
    organic matter of matrix and help mineralize it to respond to stress or fractures?
  78. Osteocytes are what?
    osteoblasts that have become trapped
  79. Where do osteocytes reside?
    in lacunae, and are connected through canaliculi
  80. Osteocytes can?
    signal osteoblasts and osteoclasts about stress
  81. Where do osteoclasts develop?
    bone marrow, and reside in resorption bays
  82. Wight of bone?
    1/3 organic, 2/3 inorganic matter
  83. Organic matter of bones?
    collagen, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, glycoproteins
  84. Inorganic matter of bones?
    85% hydroxyapatite, 10% calcium carbonate
  85. Cylinders of tissue formed form layers of matrix concentrically arranged around a blood vessel?
    Osteon or haversion system
  86. Lamellae of osteon/haversion system?
    are the individual layers
  87. Haversian canal of osteon/haversian system?
    holds the blood vessels
  88. Spongelike appearance formed by rods and plates of bone called?
  89. Trabeculae
    spaces filled with red bone marrow
  90. Hemopoietic?
    produces blood cells
  91. Produces flat bones of skull and clavicle?
    intramembranous ossification
  92. Metaphysis (transitional zone)
    between the head and shaft of a developing bone
  93. Metaphysis (zone of reserve cartilage)
    layer of resting cartilage
  94. Metaphysis (zone of cell proliferation)
    layer, chondrocytes multiply forming columns of flat lacunae
  95. Metaphysis (zone of cell hypertrophy)
    shows hypertrophy
  96. Metaphysis (zone of calcification)
    shows mineralization between columns of lacunae
  97. Metaphysis (zone of bone deposition)
    chondrocytes die and each channel is filled with osteoblasts
  98. Secondary ossification center?
    begins to form in the epiphysis near time of birth
  99. Cartilage grows by?
    appositional and institial growth
  100. Bones increase in length by?
    interstitial growth of epiphyseal plate
  101. Bones increase in width by?
    appositional growth
  102. What do osteoblasts do?
    lay down matrix in layers parallel to the outer surface
  103. What do osteoclasts do?
    dissolve bone on inner surface
  104. What dissolves bone?
    osteoclasts which produce HCI and pH 4
  105. Phosphate is a component of?
    DNA, RNA, ATP, phospholipids, acid-base buffers
  106. Calcium is needed for?
    communicating between neurons, muscle contraction, blood clotting, and exocytosis
  107. Calcium plasma concentration?
  108. Phosphate plasma concentration?
  109. Ion imbalances?
    changes in phosphate has little effects, but changes in calcium can be serious
  110. Homeostasis depends?
    on calcitriol, calcitonin, and PTH
  111. Hypocalcemia causing overexcitability of nervous system and muscle spasm
    carpopedal spasm
  112. Calcitrol production
    7-dehydrocholestrol to cholecalciferol D3 by UV, then liver converts it to calcidiol then kidney to calcitriol
  113. Calcitriol effects
    promotes osteoblasts activity, stimulates intestine to absorb calcium and phosphate
  114. Calcitonin
    secreted by c-cells of thyroid gland when calcium concentration rises to high
  115. Calcitonin effects?
    reduces osteoclast activity, promotes osteoblast activity
  116. PTH (parathyroid hormone)
    secreted when calcium blood level is too low, inhibits osteoblasts, promotes osteoclasts, and reduces calcium secretion
  117. Stages of Healing (1)
    fracture hematoma-broken vessels form a blood clot
  118. Stages of Healing (2)
    granulation tissue-fibrous tissue formed by firboblasts and infiltrated by capillaries
  119. Stages of Healing (3)
    callous formation-soft callus of firbocartilage replaced by hard callus of bone
  120. Stages of Healing (4)
    remodeling-occurs over next 6 month, spongy bone replaced by compact bone
Card Set:
Chapter 6&7 Test Review
2017-03-27 01:22:54

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