Maintaining encoded information in memory over time.
Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.
The theory holding that deeper levels of mental processing result in longer-lasting memory codes.
Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
Paivio’s theory that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall.
The preservation of information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.
Short-term memory (STM)
A limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 to 30 seconds.
The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information to be stored in memory.
A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.
Long-term memory (LTM)
An unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
Unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events.
An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events.
Concepts joined together by links that show how the concepts are related.
The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach.
Models of memory that assume cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks. See Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models.
Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models
Models of memory that assume cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks. Also called connectionist models.
Phenomenon that occurs when participants’ recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information.
An error that occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source.
The process of making attributions about the origins of memories.