Psychology Midterm 2: Memory 1

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  1. flashbulb memory
    • clear memory of emotionally significant event
    • ex. 9-11
  2. studying memory
    encoding--> storage--> retrieval
  3. Atkinson & Shiffrin model
    Image Upload
  4. working memory
    STM
  5. encoding
    getting info into memory
  6. sensory memory
    • initial recording of sensory info
    • different sensory memory for each sense (visual = iconic, auditory = echoic)
  7. demo: flashing letter matrix
    • 1. short exposure time--> no rehearsal--> stored in sensory memory, not STM
    • 100% recall of row--> large sensory memory capacity
    • 2. time delay between exposure & recall--> iconic duration = .5 sec
  8. duration of sensory memory
    • iconic- .5 sec
    • haptic- <1 sec
    • echoic- 3-4 sec
  9. change blindness
    • memory holds onto previous image, but cannot compare 2 images
    • ex. when door blocks interviewer, do not realize that interviewer changed
  10. STM capacity
    7 +/- 2
  11. effortful vs automatic encoding
    • effortful- requires attention & rehearsal
    • automatic- unconscious
  12. serial position effect
    • primacy effect--> LTM
    • recency effect--> STM
    • block rehearsal--> kills recency effect
  13. chunking
    • organized info
    • ex. telephone numbers
    • way to expand capacity
  14. memory depends on previous experience
    ex. chess experts have better memory for chess-specific board positions
  15. interference
    • new items bump out old (can only hold 7 +/- 2) in STM
    • limited capacity
  16. decay
    • lose info without rehearsal
    • limited duration
  17. Peterson & Peterson: duration of STM
    • to study STM decay, must prevent rehearsal
    • duration of STM = 20 sec
  18. LTM interference
    • proactive- old info inhibits new
    • retroactive- new info inhibits ability to remember old
  19. LTM forgetting curve
    Image Upload
  20. Loftus studies
    • memory is biased
    • ex. how fast was the car going when the car bumped/smashed into the other car?
    • leading questions
    • biased eyewitness testimonies
  21. Craik's "levels of processing" theory
    • deeper processing--> better LTM
    • shallow = what words look like
    • deep = connections to other concepts
  22. timing of LTM encoding
    • massed practice (cramming)
    • distributed practice
  23. environment/context influences memory
    same environment--> better recall
  24. organized information
    remembered better
  25. recognition
    material acts as retrieval cue
  26. recall
    reproduce material on own
  27. retrieval practice effect
    study/test recall better than study/study
  28. Mnemonics
    • encoding & recall
    • 1. categorize/organize
    • 2. imagery- link words to images
    • 3. acronym
    • 4. acoustic- form a sentence

Card Set Information

Author:
kwatanabe20
ID:
330066
Filename:
Psychology Midterm 2: Memory 1
Updated:
2017-04-03 20:50:41
Tags:
psychology
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Description:
Intro to Psychology
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