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How far back do the beginnings of yoga date?
3,500 Years ago
What area & culture do they originate from?
- The Indus Valley
- Modern day Pakistan & Western India
Which text first spoke of yoga?
How was yoga defined in this text & which disciplines were introduced?
- Defined yoga as a means of binding the breath & mind using "Om"
- Meditation & renunciation
- 6 Fold Path (pranayama, pratyhara, dhyana, dharana, tarka(comtemplation), samadi)
- Karma Yoga & Jnana Yoga
What is the next text that spoke of yoga?
How was yoga defined in this text & what practice was introduced?
- In the Vedic book, a collection of hymns and mantras define yoga as "yoking" or "disciplines".
- The found that if practiced prananyama, a type of breath control they sang better.
What is considered the most famous/beloved yogic text?
The Bhagavad Gita
Explain what Purusha & Prakriti are, describing the qualities of each
- Purity transcendental spirit, mail
- All knowing with a beginning or end
- No characteristics, immobile, exists as pure consciousness
- The seer
- Matter or nature, female
- Is in constant motion, creative, active, unconscious
- All that is seen
- Created everything in the universe
Name the 3 gunas and describe qualities of each.
- 1. Sattva: qualities of the mind & cognitive senses. Coordinate all biological & psychic activities & the cognitive senses. Keeps us connected to the external world. Goodness, pure essence, peaceful, wholesome
- 2. Rajas: qualities of gross motor responses, drives action, energy & activity. Makes physical experience possible & controls the body. Dynamic, energy, passionate, egoistic, desires & greed.
- 3. Tamas: qualities of imbalance, disorder, chaos, anxiety, etc. Darkness, an obstacle.
What is the name of the first systematic presentation of yoga?
- The Yoga Sutra
- A collection of 196 Sutras
Who is responsible for codifying the teaching of the Yoga Sutra?
What 2 main things have now been rejected from Patanjali's teachings in modern yoga?
- Dualistic view of existence
- Mastering the Astanga (Eight-Limbs) in sequence
Explain the difference between a dual and non-dual view of existence.
- Dualism: All of creation is separate & distinct from the universal consciousness but could be illuminated by Purusha.
- Non-Dualism: Everything reside within the Universal Consciousness (Purusha, the seer, the witness, the transcendental Self, The Devine.
- Nothing exists outside of it.
Is yoga a religion? Explain
- When one is devoted to a guru or god - Yes
- No - It proposes no God or Savior
- Thought more as a science or philosophy a spiritual and physical practice. Because it's overall effects are predictable.
- Patanjali codified
- The Eight-Limbed Path of Yoga
Eight-Limbs of Yoga
- 1 Yamas - Restraints
- 2 Niyamas - Observances / Disciplines
- 3 Asana - Physical Practice
- 4 Pranayama - Breath Control
- 5 Pratyahara - Withdrawal of the Senses
- 6 Dhyrana - Concentration
- 7 Dhyana - Meditation
- 8 Samadi - State of Enlightment / Liberation
- "Thou Shalt Nots"
- Self Control
- Guidelines to establish a strong ethical backbone
- 1 Ahimsa - Non-violence / Kindness
- 2 Satya - Non-Lying / Truthfullness
- 3 Asteya - Non-stealing
- 4 Brahmacharya - Moderation
- 5 Aprigraha - Non-hoarding
1st Yama - Non-violence / Kindness
- In our actions, thoughts, feelings and words.
- Clear intention to act with clarity and love.
2nd Yama - Truthfulness / Sincerity
- Taking our time and carefully considering our thoughts and words
- Awareness of the effect our words and thoughts have on others and ourselves
3rd Yama - Non Stealing
- Of material items, that which is not offered
- includes time, energy, feelings, thoughts or ideas…
Non-stealing of actions, thoughts, things
4th Yama - Moderation
Conserving of vital energy
- Brahma literally means the ‘divine consciousness’ and charya, means ‘living’ or ‘one who is established in’.
- Being established in divine consciousness
- Being established in the higher (form of the) mind.
- Walking with God
5th Yama - Non-hoarding / Non-greed / Non-covetousness /Non-possessive
- Of ideas, of people, of places.
- Of anything that we hold on to, act possessively toward, hoard, or cling to
2nd Limb - Observances
- Positive duties
- Personal practices for taking care of ourselves
- "Thou Shalts"
- 1 Saucha
- 2 Santosa
- 3 Tapas
- 4 Svadhyaya
- 5 Isvara pranidhana
1st Niyama - Cleanliness
- Purification in both external environment and internal body
- Through our food, drinks, friends, entertainment, home, & transportation, etc.
- In thoughts, words, and deeds
2nd Niyama - Contentment
Not craving what we don't have as well as coveting the possessions of others
Feel the happiness or experience the pain in the world; but don't become that joy or that pain ... Contentment lies within
3rd Niyama - Austerity / Asceticism
- Intense self-discipline and attainment of will power
- Mastering our extremes
- Doing something you do not want to do that will have a positive effect on your life
4th Niyama - Self-Study
- Contemplation of our life's lessons
- Examination of our actions to see our conscious and unconscious motives, thoughts, and desires more clearly
- The study of sacred and spiritual texts as a guide to our interior world where our true self resides
5th Niyama - Devotion
To surrender the fruits of our practice to a higher power other than ourselves fills us with grace, inner peace, and abounding love
Dissolves our egocentric nature and lets go our constant identification with ourselves
3rd Limb - Posture
- To be seated in a position that is firm but relaxed
- Prepares our physical body for seated meditation
4th Limb - Controlling and harnessing the breath
- Prana - Life force or breath
- Ayama - to extend or draw out
5th Limb - Withdrawal of the senses
- Tuning out sensory distractions
- "Control of ahara" or gaining mastery over external influences
6th Limb - Concentration
Binding the mind to one place, object, or idea
7th Limb - State of meditation
Dhi - Receptacle or the mind, Yana - moving or going
8th Limb - Enlightenment
- State of intense concentration achieved through meditation
- State of oneness
Atha Yoga Anushasanum
1.1 Yoga Sutra
Now begins the teaching of yoga
- Atha - Now, readiness,& commitment
- Yoga - Union, to bring together
- Anushasanum - Traditional teaching
Yoga Chitta Vritti Nirodha
1.2 Yoga Sutra
When the fluctuations of your thoughts and emotions become still
- Yoga - State of being
- Chit - Our consciousness, thoughts, & emotions
- Vrit - To turn, spin, whirl
- Ni - Under
- Rod - to restrict
Tada drastuh svarupe vasthanam
1.3 Yoga Sutra
Then the seer abides in itself, resting in its true nature, also known as self-realization.
- Tada - Then, at the time of concentration and meditation
- Drastuh - the seer, of the soul, witness, Self
- Svarupe - in its nature, own form or essense
- Vasthanam - standing, abiding, resting
1.4 Yoga Sutra
When the seer identifies with consciousness…
- vritti - of the operations, activities, fluctuations, modifications, changes, or various forms (of the mind-field)
- sarupyam - similarity, assimilation, appearance of, identification of form or nature, conformity with the shape of; the root sa means with, and rupa means form
- itaratra - elsewhere, at other times, when not in that state of realization above
Sthira Sukham Asanum
2.46 Yoga Sutra
Postures should be stable and comfortable
- Sthira - Strength, effort, stable
- Sukham - Ease, steady, good space
- Asanum - Posture, pose, seat
Tendencies, qualities, & attributes of Prakriti
- 3 Gunas :
- 1 Sattva - Attached to joyful feelings
- 2 Raja - Attached to action, greed, possessiveness
- 3 Tamas - Life of despondency
- Qualities of the mind and cognitive senses
- Coordinate all biological and psychic activities and the cognitive senses keep us connect to the external world
- Harmony, balance, tranquility, goodness & pure essence, peaceful, wholesome
- Attached to joyful feelings
- Qualities of gross motor responses
- Drives actions, energy and activity
- Makes physical experience possible
- Controls the body
- Dynamic energy, passionate, egoistic, active, violent, & desires
Attached to actions of greed and possessiveness
- Causes dullness and ignorance through its power to obscure
- Primarily immobilizing;
- tamasic foods are lifeless, stale, or impure;
- tamasic entertainment is mindless and intoxicating
- Leads to inaction when action is required
- Heavy and dense
- Attached to a life of despondency
The 5 Vayus
Wind / Element of Air
- Udana - Upward Energy
- Prana - Upward & Inward
- Samana - Periphery to Core
- Vyana - Core to Periphery
- Apana - Downward
- Circular energy moves upward & outward
- Situated in the throat
- Regulates speech, memory, intake, will, effort, mental strength, balance, sensing, intelligence
- Energy moves Upward & Inward
- Situated in the chest & head
- Life giving energy, vitality
- Governs respiration, circulation, sensory-motor, temperature, feeling, thinking
- Energy moves from periphery to core
- Situated in the abdomen
- Governs digestion & assimulation of all substances, food, air, experiences, emotions & thoughts
- Circular energy moves from core to periphery
- Whole body
- Situated in the heart & lungs, flows throughout the entire body
- Energy move downward
- Situated in the pelvic floor, pervades the lower abdomen
- Nourishes the organs of digestion, reproduction & elimination
Kosha - The 5 Psychic Sheaths
- Anandamaya Kosha - Bliss Body
- Vijnanamaya Kosha - Knowledge Sheath
- Monomaya Kosha - Mental Sheath
- Pranamaya Kosha - Vital Air Sheath
- Annamaya Kosha - Food Sheath
- Kosha 1
- Our Physical Body
- Outside layer of the body / food body.
- Our muscles and our bones, our ligaments and our tendons.
- Through yoga practice you can increase flexibility, tone muscles, relax their bodies, gain strength, improve balance and release stress.
- Asana practice and pranayama impacts Pranamaya kosha.
- Prana comes into the body via food and water, but it also comes into the body via breath.
- Processes input from our five senses and responds reflexively. When we move through life passively, reacting to our environment rather than actively shaping it, our awareness is focused here.
- Aspect of Self which takes care of our instinctual needs, plus it also helps us obtain our individual desires. On a practical level, safety, security, obtaining love and taking care of loved ones.
- Vijnana - the power of judgment or discernment
- All functions of the higher mind, conscience and will, a deeper level of intuition, greater internal wisdom and a sense of higher knowledge.
- The state of mind which does not change, despite anything that happens in life. With that state of mind you can live with all the conditions of life. Good or bad, prosperity or poverty, disease or death, nothing affects you.
- You are where you are, firmly rooted in your own self, but at the same time you can interact with everyone.