Chem 4, College of the Desert, Chapter 10.txt

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Chem 4, College of the Desert, Chapter 10.txt
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2012-05-16 12:00:17
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  1. Deydration
    Alcohol with Heat (H) causes an Alkene + H20
  2. C2 H6; Ethane
    • H. H
    • H----C------C---H
    • H. H
  3. Active Site
    A pocket in a part of the tertiary enzyme structure that binds substrait and catalyzes a reaction.
  4. C3 H8: Propane
    • H. H. H
    • H---C---C---C---H
    • H. H. H
  5. CH3--CH2--
    Substituent; Ethyl (yl is the focus at the end of the name).
  6. CH3
    Substituant: Mythyl
  7. CH3----CH2---CH2---R
    Substituent: Propyl
  8. CH3---CH---CH3
    |
    Substituent: IsoPropyl
  9. Alkane Mixtures of Crude Oil
    Distillation Temp (dagree) C: below 30*C=1-4 Carbon Atoms & natural gas: 30-200*C=5-12 Carbon=gasoline ;200-250*C=12-16 Carbon= kerosine,jet fuel; 250-350*C=15-18 Carbon= diesel fuel, heating oil; 350-450*C=18-25 Carbon= lubricating oil; Nonvolatile residue= >25 Carbon=asphalt, Tar
  10. IUPAC name for 1st Alkane
    • Methane;
    • CH4
  11. IUPAC name for 2nd Alkane
    Ethane; C2H6

    CH3---CH3
  12. IUPAC name for 3rd Alkane
    Propane; C3H8

    CH3---CH2---CH3
  13. IUPAC name for 4th Alkane
    Butane: C4H10

    CH3--CH2--CH2--CH3
  14. IUPAC name for 5th Alkane
    • Pentane: C5H12
    • CH3--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH3
  15. IUPAC name for 6th Alkane
    Hexane: C6H14

    CH3--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH3
  16. IUPAC name for 7th Alkane
    Heptane: C7H16

    CH3--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH3
  17. IUPAC name for 8th Alkane
    Octane: C8H18

    CH3--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH3
  18. IUPAC name for 9th Alkane
    Nonane: C9H20

    CH3--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH3
  19. IUPAC name for 10th Alkane
    Decane: C10H22

    CH3--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH2--CH3
  20. F (as a substituent)
    Fluoro
  21. CL (as a substituent)
    Chloro
  22. Br (as a substituent)
    Bromo
  23. I (as a substituent)
    Iodo
  24. Organic
    • Elements: C, H, sometimes O, S, N, or Cl
    • Particles: Molecules
    • Polarity of bonds: nonpolar, unless more electronegitivity atom is present.
    • Melting point: unusually low
    • Boiling point: unusually low
    • Flammability: High
    • Soluable in H2O:Not soluable unless a polar group is present
  25. Methane
    • Moleculare formula: CH4
    • H
    • |
    • H--C--H
    • |
    • H
  26. Acidic amino acid
    An amino acid that has a carboxylic acid side chain. (-COOH), which ionizes as a week acid.
  27. Combustion
    • An Alkane undergoes combustion when it completly reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.
    • ie: Alkane +O2 = CO2 + H2O
    • Note: odd # of C's Alkane = okay
    • Note: Even # of C's Alkane = you must multiply whole formula by 2
  28. Esterification
    Chapter 13
    • The formation of an Ester from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, with the elimination of a molecule of water in the presence of an acid catalyst.
    • ie: carb acid+alcohol-> Ester + H2O
    • ie: 2 reactants -> 2 products
  29. Carbonal Group
    • O
    • ||
    • C
  30. Hydroxyl Group
    -O-H
  31. Carboxyl Group
    • O
    • ||
    • C-O-H
  32. Classification of Organic compounds (part 3)
    Contain C,H and a double bond to O;

    • Aldehydes: C bonds to at least 1 H; O
    • ||
    • ie: H-C-H

    • Ketone: C bonds to 2 C atoms; O
    • ||
    • H3C-C-CH3
  33. Classifications of organic Compounds (part 5)
    Contain C, H and N

    Amines: 1 or more C groups, replace H in ammonia (amines can be primary, secoundary, and tritiary.)

    Amides: hydroxyl is replaced by Nitrogen
  34. Covalent Bonds for Elements in Organic compounds
    • H = 1A = 1 covalent bond
    • C = 4A = 4 covalent bonds
    • N = 5A = 3 covalent bonds
    • O, S = 6A = 2covalent bonds
    • F,Cl,Br,I =7A=1covalent bond
  35. Classification of Organic Compounds (part 4)
    Contain C,H, carboxyl & carboxyl + hydroxyl

    • Carbonic Acid:O bonded to H
    • Ester: O bonded to C not H
    • ie; O
    • ||
    • CH3-C-O-CH3

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