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What is effective nuclear charge?
The charge experienced by an electron in a multi electron atom
What is shielding?
When inner electrons block outer electrons from the full attraction to the nucleus
What is electron configuration?
Which orbitals are occupied by electrons
What are core electrons?
Electrons in the inner most shells that are not involved in chemical reactions
What are degenerate orbitals?
Orbitals with the same energy level. Ex: the three p orbitals in a given subshell
What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
No two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers
What is the Aufbau Principle?
Lower energy orbitals fill before higher energy orbitals
An orbital can only hold two electrons and they must have opposite spins
What is Hund's rule?
Electrons go into orbitals one at a time until they are all filled with a single electron, and then begin to pair up.
What are the charges for Coulombs Law?
Like charges: the potential energy is positive
(This also includes two negative charges)
Opposite charges: the potential energy is negative
What is penetration?
When one orbital invades another inner orbital and experiences greater attraction to the nucleus
How does atomic radius change down a family?
Increases because atomic size increases as number of shells increases
How does atomic radius change across a row?
Decreases because there is increased attraction to electrons in inner orbitals- size is smaller
What is the radius of a cation?
Loss of electrons results in the decrease of radius as compared to the atom
What is the radius of an anion?
Gain of electrons results in the increase of radius compared to the atom
What is ionization energy?
The minimum energy needed to remove one mole of energy from one mole of the gaseous atom or ion
It is easier to remove outer electrons, but when the energy becomes too great you have removed an inner electron with a stronger attraction to the nucleus
What is the double slit experiment?
Light is shone through two slits onto the wall behind. If a diffraction pattern occurs, the light is a wave. If two bands occur, the light is a particle.
What is the dual nature of light model?
Is light a wave or a particle?
Double slit experiment
Shows light is a wave
What is the photo-electric effect?
Lights wavelength is related to its energy
Relates wavelength to particles
wavelength can be converted to energy
What is the de Broglie equation?
Matter is also a wave because everything has a wavelength property
Bigger the matter, the bigger the wavelength
What is the Quantum Mechanics model?
Electron behavior determines the behavior of the atom
Electrons cannot be observed directly because it changes their behavior
What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
You can know either the property or momentum of the electron but not both at the same time
Probability of an electron
What is the probability of an electron?
Particles move in a path determined by velocity, position and the forces acting on it
What is l equal to?
The number of orbitals below the electron
What is ml equal to?
What is n equal to?
The principle electron
What is ms equal to?
The spin of the electrons (always -1/2 or +1/2)
Large energy gaps make ____ wavelengths
Short energy gaps make ____ wavelengths