Quantum Mechanics test

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  1. What is effective nuclear charge?
    The charge experienced by an electron in a multi electron atom
  2. What is shielding?
    When inner electrons block outer electrons from the full attraction to the nucleus
  3. What is electron configuration?
    Which orbitals are occupied by electrons
  4. What are core electrons?
    Electrons in the inner most shells that are not involved in chemical reactions
  5. What are degenerate orbitals?
    Orbitals with the same energy level. Ex: the three p orbitals in a given subshell
  6. What is the Pauli Exclusion Principle?
    No two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers
  7. What is the Aufbau Principle?
    Lower energy orbitals fill before higher energy orbitals 

    An orbital can only hold two electrons and they must have opposite spins
  8. What is Hund's rule?
    Electrons go into orbitals one at a time until they are all filled with a single electron, and then begin to pair up.
  9. What are the charges for Coulombs Law?
    Like charges: the potential energy is positive 

    (This also includes two negative charges)

    Opposite charges: the potential energy is negative
  10. What is penetration?
    When one orbital invades another inner orbital and experiences greater attraction to the nucleus
  11. How does atomic radius change down a family?
    Increases because atomic size increases as number of shells increases
  12. How does atomic radius change across a row?
    Decreases because there is increased attraction to electrons in inner orbitals- size is smaller
  13. What is the radius of a cation?
    Loss of electrons results in the decrease of radius as compared to the atom
  14. What is the radius of an anion?
    Gain of electrons results in the increase of radius compared to the atom
  15. What is ionization energy?
    The minimum energy needed to remove one mole of energy from one mole of the gaseous atom or ion

    It is easier to remove outer electrons, but when the energy becomes too great you have removed an inner electron with a stronger attraction to the nucleus
  16. What is the double slit experiment?
    Light is shone through two slits onto the wall behind. If a diffraction pattern occurs, the light is a wave. If two bands occur, the light is a particle.
  17. What is the dual nature of light model?
    Young 1803- 

    Is light a wave or a particle?

    Double slit experiment

    Shows light is a wave
  18. What is the photo-electric effect?
    Einstein- 1905

    Lights wavelength is related to its energy

    Relates wavelength to particles 


    wavelength can be converted to energy
  19. What is the de Broglie equation?
    Matter is also a wave because everything has a wavelength property

    Bigger the matter, the bigger the wavelength 

    λ= h/mv
  20. What is the Quantum Mechanics model?
    Shrodinger- 1926

    Electron behavior determines the behavior of the atom

    Electrons cannot be observed directly because it changes their behavior
  21. What is the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle?
    Heisenberg- 1927 

    You can know either the property or momentum of the electron but not both at the same time

    Probability of an electron
  22. What is the probability of an electron?
    Particles move in a path determined by velocity, position and the forces acting on it
  23. What is l equal to?
    The number of orbitals below the electron
  24. What is ml equal to?
    The orbital
  25. What is n equal to?
    The principle electron
  26. What is ms equal to?
    The spin of the electrons (always -1/2 or +1/2)
  27. Large energy gaps make ____ wavelengths
  28. Short energy gaps make ____ wavelengths
Card Set:
Quantum Mechanics test
2017-04-09 02:01:48
Chemistry quantum

Chem test 3
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