Chem 4, College of the Desert, Chapter 14.txt

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Chem 4, College of the Desert, Chapter 14.txt
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2011-06-23 18:14:47
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Chapter14 Chem4
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  1. CHO
    • OH--------------H
    • OH--------------H
    • H--------------OH
    • CH2OH
  2. CH2OH
    • /|•----O \
    • |•/. \•|
    • \ /OH
    • \|•------•|/
    • Also. D - Dugar
    • (Alpha Aldopentose)
  3. Sucrose
    A disacharide composed of glucose and fructose; a non-reducing sugar, commonly called table sugar.
  4. L - Ribose
    • CHO
    • OH------------H
    • OH------------H
    • OH------------H
    • CH2OH
    • Also L - Sugar
    • A - Aldopentos
  5. Aldose
    • (ALDO-se)
    • A monosacharide that contains an aldehyde group
    • O
    • ||
    • C-H , CHO

    • Triose - 3C
    • Tetros. -4C
    • Pentose -5C
    • Hexos. -6C

    • ie:
    • CHO
    • ---
    • ---
    • ---
    • ---
    • ---
    • CH2OH
    • (AldaHexos)
  6. Amylopectin
    • A branch - chain polymer of starch composed of glucose units joined by alpha-1,4 and 1,6 glucosidic bonds.
    • Every 25 glucose units; 80% starch.
  7. Amylose
    • An unbranched polymer of Starch, composed of glucose units joined by alpha -1,4 glycosidic bonds.
    • 20% Starch : 250-4000
    • alpha -D glucose molecules.
  8. Carbohydrate
    A simple or complex sugar composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.
  9. Cellulose
    • An unbranched polysaccharide composed of glucose units linked by B-1,4 glycosidic bonds that can not be hydrolysized by the human digestive system.
    • ie: wood, plant, mot digestable
    • -1,4 glycosidic bonds
  10. Compatibility of blood groups
    • Group. Can recieve. Can't
    • A. A,O. B,AB
    • B. B,O. A,AB
    • AB. A,B,AB,O.
    • O. O. A,B,AB

    • AB is Universal Recipient
    • O Universal Donor
  11. Dissaccharides
    Carbohydrates composed of two monosacharides joined by a glycosidic bond.
  12. Fructose
    A monosaccharide that is also called levulose and fruit sugar and is found in honey and fruit juices; it is combined with glucose in sucrose.

    Ketohexose
  13. Galactose
    A monosaccharide that occures combined with glucose in lactose.

    An Aldohexos
  14. Glucose
    The most prevelent monosaccharide in the diet. An Aldohexose found in fruits, vegetables, corn syrup, and honey that is also known are blood sugar and dextrose. Most polysaccharides are polymers of glucose.

    An Aldohexose
  15. Glycogen
    • A polysaccarid formed in the liver and muscles for the storage of glucose as an energy reserve. It is composed of glucose in a lightly branched polymer joined by alpha -1,4 and -1,6 glycosidic bonds.
    • Every 10-15 glucose units.
  16. Glycosidic bond
    The bond that forms when the hydroxyl group of one monosaccharide reacts with the hydroxyl group pf another monosaccharide. It is the type of bond that links monosaccharide units in di- or polysaccharids.
  17. Haworth Structure
    The ring structure of a monosaccharide.
  18. Ketose
    • A monosaccharide that contains a ketone group.
    • Note: and a ketone is on 2nd "C".
    • Triose-3C. Ketotrios
    • Tetros-4Cv. Ketotetros
    • Pentose-5C. Ketopentos
    • Hexose-6C. Ketohexos
  19. Lactose
    • A disaccharide consisting of glucose and galactose found in Milk and milk products.
    • B-1,4
  20. Maltose
    • A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units; it is obtained from the hydrolysis of starch and in germinating grains.
    • Alpha -1,4
  21. Monosaccharides
    A polyhydroxy compound that contains an aldehyde or ketone group.
  22. Polysaccharides
    Polymers of many monosaccharides units, usually glucose. Polysaccharides differ in the types of glycosidic bonds and the amount of branching in the polymer.
  23. Reducing Sugar
    • A carbohydrate with an Aldehyde group capable of reducing the Cu2+ in Benedicts reagent.
    • O
    • ||
    • It has an aldehyde C-H
  24. L - Glucose
    • CHO
    • HO-----H
    • H-----OH
    • HO-----H
    • HO-----H
    • CH2OH

    A Aldohexos
  25. D - Glucose
    • CHO
    • H----------OH
    • HO----------H
    • H----------OH
    • H----------OH
    • CH2OH

    A Aldohexos
  26. L - Galactose
    • CHO
    • OH----------H
    • H----------OH
    • H----------OH
    • OH----------H
    • CH2OH

    A Aldohexos
  27. D - Galactose
    • CHO
    • HO----------H
    • H----------OH
    • H----------OH
    • H----------OH
    • CH2OH

    A Aldohexose
  28. D - Fructos
    • CH2OH
    • C=O
    • HO----------H
    • H----------OH
    • H----------OH
    • CH2OH

    Ketohexos
  29. L - Fructose
    • CH2OH
    • C=O
    • HO----------H
    • H----------OH
    • HO----------H
    • CH2OH
  30. Hypo
    70 - 90 mg/ dl

    (below)
  31. Hyper
    (above)

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