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  1. Adrenal Gland  

    (Endocrine gland)
    A gland above the kidney that produces hormones to regulate heart rate, blood pressure and other functions.
  2. Pituitary Gland

    (Endocrine system)
    The endrocrine gland at the base of the brain that controls growth and development
  3. Thymus Gland
    (Endocrine system)
    • The lymphoid organ that produces T-cells
    • Plays a role in immune responses
  4. Thyroid Gland

    (Endocrine system
    The gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate growth, development and metabolic rate
  5. Cell differentiation
    An early phase in the embroyonic development:

    • Ectoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Endoderm
  6. Trypsinogen, an enzyme secreted by the pancreas, is activated into trypsin in the duodenum by which enzyme?
    • Enterkinase
    • Aka enteropeptidase
    • An enzyme secreted by the lining of the duodenum
    • concerts the inactive trysinogen into the active trypsin
  7. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which is responsible for maturation of follicles in the ovary, is produced by which gland in the body?
    • Anterior lobe of pituitary gland
    • produced FSH that goes via bloodstream into the ovary for maturaton of follicles
  8. In a chemical reaction: sulphuric acid + substance x=  salt + water+ carbon dioxide. What could substance x be?
    • Sodium carbonate
    • Acids react with carbonates to produce salt, water, and carbon dioxide
    • since carbon dioxide is produced in the reaction, x must be a carbonate
  9. A body is moving in a circle with constant speed. Which of the statements about the body is true?
    • There is a force acting towards the center of circle
    • Both accerelation and force are towards the center of the circle
    • velocity is tangent to the circle
  10. Which of these make up a molecule of fat?
    • Three molecules of fatty acid and one molecule of glycerol
    • Three molecules of an organic acid called a "fatty acid" combine with one molecule of "glycerol" to form a fat molecule
  11. Enzymes are __ that work best at __ pH or temperature
    • Biological Catalysts
    • Enzymes are biological catalysts because they are made in living cells and speeds up reactions in the body
    • Optimum temp or pH is the temp in which enzymes work best (maximum activity)
  12. Fermatation
    • Bacteria, yeast and even muscle cells can perform a metabolic process
    • Sugars are converted into gases, alcohol and/or acids
  13. Oxygen debt
    • During exercise pyruvic acid builds up in muscles faster than it can be oxidized
    • This pyruvic acid converts to lactic acid
    • A high level of oxygen is required even after the exercise finished to oxidize this lactic acid
  14. Facilitated diffusion
    • The movement of substance across a biological membrane using transmembrane integral proteins
    • Substance move down the concentration gradient without the use of energy
  15. Ball and socket joints
    • Where the spherodal surface of one bone moves within the socket of another
    • Provide maximum mobility amongst all joints + extension, abbduction + adduction, medial + lateral rotation and circumduction
  16. Phalanges are bones present in which parts of the body?
    fingers and toes
  17. Which valve is found between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
    • Bicuspid (mitral) valve
    • Regulates the flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle
    • Has two cusps, anterior and posterior
  18. Ball and Socket joints, pivot joints, plane joints and hinge joints are which type of joints?
    • All of them are synovial joints
    • Freely moveable joints of locomotion
    • Articulating bones are united y a joint capsule with articulate cartilage and synovial fluid
  19. Cardiac muscles exhibit which of the features?
    striated, involuntary, intercalated discs present
  20. The brachiocephalic vein if formed by which of the two veins?
    • Internal jugular vein
    • Subclavian vein
  21. Which element is essential for the normal production of the hormone throwing?
    • Iodine
    • Required by the thyroid gland for the production of the hormone thyroxine
  22. Which of these is an example of protein related malnutrition?
    Kwashiorkor
  23. Food moves in the gastrointestinal tract by which of these processes?
    • Peristalsis of the circular and longitudinal muscles
    • Waves of contraction move food down the alimentary canal
    • Circular and longitudinal muscles of the gastrointestinal tract undergo peristalsis
  24. Chemical Reaction
    Acts as catalyst
  25. Organic Molecule 
    (Chemical reaction)
    A molecule found in a living thing that contains carbon
  26. 5 Basic chemical reactions
    • 1. synthesis
    • 2. Decomposition
    • 3. Single replacement
    • 4. Double replacement
    • 5. Combustion
  27. Scientific Investigation
    • Control variable- something kept constant during an experiment
    • Dependent variable- what is measured in an experiment as a possible effect?
    • Independent variable- what is measured in an a possible cause
  28. Kidneys
    (Urinary system)
    • The pair of organs that regulate fluid balance and filter waste from the blood
    • Creates urine
    • Maintain blood pressure
    • Produce the active form of Vitamin D
    • Divided into cortex and medulla
  29. Renin
    (Urinary system)
    • An enzyme that regulates arterial blood pressure by retaining
    • Remove water and salt
    • Produces in kidneys
  30. Renal Vein
    (Urinary system)
    Veins connecting the kidney to the inferior vena cava that drain the kidney and carry blood purified by the kidney
  31. Glomerulus
    (Urinary system)
    • Located in the renal cortex, filters blood to form a dilute plasma like filtrate
    • Concentrated in the proximal and distal convoluted loops of the renal medulla
    • Salt and water are transported to make urine and released into the collecting duct
  32. Renal Pelvis
    (Urinary system)
    The center of the kidney where urine collects before moving to the ureter
  33. Renal cortex
    (Urinary system)
    The outer layer of the kidney
  34. Renal Arteries
    (urinary system)
    The two branches of the abdominal aorta that supply the kidneys
  35. Urinary system
    • Capable of eliminating excess substances while preserving the substance needed by the body
    • Consist of the kidneys, urinary ducts and bladder
  36. Nephron
    (Urinary system)
    • The part of the kidney responsible for filtering and excretion
    • Functional unit of the kidney
  37. Base
    (Chemical reacton)
    a substance with a pH greater than 7
  38. Catalyst
    (chemical reaction)
    A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation rate required without undergoing permanent chemical change
  39. Compound
    (Chemical reaction)
    A substance made of two or more elements
  40. Element
    (chemical reaction)
    Pure substances that cannot be broken down into simplier substances
  41. Parathyroid
    (Endocrine system)
    • Gland in the neck that produces parathyroid hormones
    • Regulates calcium levels in the blood
  42. Pineal Gland
    (endocrine system)
    • A small gland near the center of the brain that secretes melatonin
    • Has an influence on daily biorhythms and sexual activity
  43. Boiling
    (changes of state in matter)
    liquid at a temperature at which it is changing to a vapor
  44. condensation
    (changes of state in matter)
    changing of vapor to a gas or liquid
  45. Critical point
    (changes of state in matter)
    The temperature at which the liquid and gas phases of a substance have the same density
  46. Freezing
    (changes of state in matter)
    changing from a liquid to a solid due to temperature
  47. Gas
    (changes of state in matter)
    A state of matter composed of molecules in constant random motion
  48. Liquid
    (changes of state in matter)
    A state of matter that has definition volume but not definite shape
  49. Melting
    (changes of state in matter)
    Changing from a solid to a liquid due to temperature
  50. Phase Diagram
    (changes of state in matter)
    A graph of physical states of a substance under varying temperature and pressure
  51. Solid
    (changes of state in matter)
    A state of matter that retains its shape and density when not contained
  52. Sublimation
    (changes of state in matter)
    Hanging from a gas to a solid without becoming a liquid
  53. Triple Point
    (changes of state in matter)
    The temperature and pressure at which solid, liquid, and vapor phases of a pure substance coexist
  54. Kinetic Molecular Theory
    (changes of state in matter)
    • Molecular motion changes as heat is added or removed
    • As the temperature of a substance increases, the intermolecular forces that hold the molecules together are broken, causing the molecules to move away from each other
  55. Changes of state in matter info
    • 1. melting requires an addition of heat, which causes the molecules to become more energized and increases their vibrational and translational motion
    • 2. Boiling requires the addition of heat to change from liquid to gas
    • 3.Freezing and condensation both require the removal of heat to change from a liquid to a solid or gas to a liquid
  56. The phase of substance depends on temperature and pressure
    • 1. increasing temperature has a tendency to move that particles of matter apart, and increasing pressure has a tendency to pack them together
    • 2. At a triple point, solid, liquid, a gas coexist
    • At a critical point, liquid and gas coexist
  57. Acid
    (Chemical reaction)
    A substance with a pH less than 7
  58. Valence Electron
    (Basic atomic structure)
    An electron in an outer orbital that can form bonds with other atoms
  59. Into on Atoms
    • The number of protons gives the atomic #
    • The number of protons plus neutrons give the atomic mass
    • Atoms are neutral and have equal # of protons and electrons
  60. Info on Electrons
    • The periodic table arranges atoms by increasing atomic #
    • Atoms with similar properties have the same number of valence electrons
    • S orbital: 2 electrons
    • P orbital: 6 electrons
    • D orbital: 18 electrons
    • F orbital: 32 electrons
    • Gaining electrons typically happens in atoms with valences greater than 4 and losing electrons typically happens in atoms with valence less than 4
  61. Boiling Point
    (Characterisitics properties of substances)
    The temperature at which a liquid boils and turns into vapor
  62. Chemical properties
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    Characteristics of a material that present during a chemical reaction or chemical change
  63. Density
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    The amount of mass per volume
  64. Diffusion
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    Mingling of substance and movement from area of high to low concentration
  65. Extensive properties
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    Properties that depend on the state of matter
  66. Intensive Properties
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    Properties that do not depend on the state of matter
  67. Melting pot
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
  68. Nonpolar
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    A type of covalent bond in which two atoms share electrons
  69. Osmosis
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    Passage of fluid through a membrane
  70. Physical Properties
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    Observable properties of matter
  71. Polar
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    A molecule that has negative and positive sides
  72. Specific heat capacity
    (Characteristics properties of substances)
    The amount of energy needed to change the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1 degree celsius
  73. Ion
    (Basic atomic structure)
    A positively or negatively charged atom or molecule
  74. Ionic Bond
    (Basic atomic structure)
    • The bond between two oppositely charged ions
    • Compounds are soluble in water and conduct electricity
    • Formed by transfer of electrons between atoms
  75. Isotope
    (Basic atomic structure)
    Where the numbers of neurons in different atoms of the same element can vary
  76. Orbital
    (Basic atomic structure)
    An area around the nucleus where an electron can be found
  77. DNA (Deoxyribunucleic acid)
    • Found in chromosomes  in nucleus in cell
    • Store hereditary information
    • Contains nucleotides composed of a deoxyribose sugar, one of four nitrogenous bases and a phosphate molecule
  78. Nucleus acids
    • Long molecules made of necleotides
    • DNA+RNA
    • Errors in sequence are mutations and usually interfere with protein functions
  79. Enzymes
    • Class of proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without being consumed in the reation
    • Speed up a reaction by lowering the energy required by the system to initiate the reaction
    • Reactions can be exergonic (release energy) or endergonic (require energy)
  80. Macromolecules
    • Polymers joined together by covalent bonds between the monomer in units (bonds made by water removal or dehydration)
    • (Polymers can be broken down with addition of water, hydrolysis, releasing monomers and energy)
    • carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  81. Carbohydrates
    • Sugars and starched which the body breaks down into glucose
    • Functions:
    • Structural functions (cellulose, chitin)
    • Energy storage (amylose, amylopectin, and glycogen
    • Recognition molecules (glycoproteins, glucolipids)
  82. Lipids
    • Proteins that are composed predominantly of hydrogen and carbon
    • Fatty acids and their derivatives that are insoluble in water (hydrophobic)
    • Functions are structure and storage
  83. Protein
    • Molecules composed of amino acids joined by peptide bonds (20 different amino acids)
    • Amino acids all share an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
    • Fibrous, hydophobic molecules like keratin and collagen have hydrophobic amino acids on their surface, are not soluble in water, are found in structural molecules (hair, nails)
  84. Globular proteins
    Have hydrophillic surface amino acids and are soluble in water (hemoglobin, antibodies, enzymes)
  85. Membrane Proteins
    A stretch of hydrophobic amino acids sandwiched between layers of hydrophilic amino acids and are found embedded in membranes where they function in transport or signal transfer
  86. Protein functions
    • Enzymes
    • Structure
    • transport
    • immune
  87. Law of heredity
    • Parents are chosen to have pure breeding traits, one dominant and one recessive
    • This means that the genome of one parents contains two alleies for dominant trait (homozygous dominant genotype)
    • The other parent has two alleies for the recessive trait (homozygous recessive genotype)
  88. Monohybrid inheritance
    • AKA Mendel's first law
    • The law of segregation
    • Refers to the inheritance of a single trait
    • The parents are homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive
  89. Heterozygous
    The condition of having two different alleies on the two chromosomes
  90. Dihybrid inheritance
    • AKA Mendel's second law
    • The law of independent assortment
    • examines the simultaneous inheritance of two separate traits
    • present on two different sets of chromosomes
    • Dihybrid ratio: 9:3:3:1
  91. Non-mendelian inheritance
    • Occurs when there are factors other than dominant/recessive in play, such as multiple allelies (blood groups A, B and O)
    • Incomplete dominance-recessive relationships that lead to a intermediate (pink flower)
    • Combination inheritance (AB blood, interations between genes called epistasis)
    • If 3:1 or 9:3:3:1 relationship not obtained
  92. Anion
    (Basic atomic structure)
    A negatively charger ion
  93. Cation
    (Basic atomic structure)
    A positively charger ion
  94. Covalent Bond
    (Basic atomic structure)
    A chemical bond in which electron pairs are shared between atoms
  95. Dendritic Cell
    (immune system)
    Antigen presenting cells that process antigen material and present it to T cells
  96. Complement
    (immune system)
    The group of proteins in blood serum and plasma that works with antibodies to destroy particular antigens
  97. Macrophage
    (immune system)
    • A large white blood cell that ingests foreign material
    • Phagocytes that alert T cells do the presence of foreign substances
  98. T Cell (T lymphocytes)

    (Immune system)
    • WBCs that mature in the thymus and participate in immune response
    • These directly attack cells infected by viruses and bacteria
  99. B Cell (B lymphocytes)

    (immune system)
    • Cells that mature in bone marrow and make antibodies in response to antigens
    • These cells target specific bacteria for destruction
  100. Adaptive immune system
    • Functional cells are lymphocytes called T cells and B cells
    • APC digest pathogens and present the antigen signature "helper" T cells
    • When helper T cells encounters a cytotoxic T cell that recognizes the same antigen, it produces cytokines that activate the cytotoxic T cell
    • The cytotoxic T cells then searched out and destroy any cell with that signature
  101. Innate immune system
    • A series of nonspecific barriers: physical, cellular, and soluble components
    • If a pathogen breached these barriers, internal barriers and interferons complement, which causes antibodies binding to the pathogen
    • This causes inflammation leading to fever, and NK (natural killer) cells attacking host cells along with phagocytic cells that digest
  102. What respond to PAMPs through toll like receptors and trigger inflammation or antigen presentation?


    (immune system)
    Macrophages and dendritic cells
  103. The "helper" T cell

    (immune system)
    • Activated the B cell, which causes them to multiply into plasma cells
    • Which produces large amounts of antibody
    • If antigen levels subside plasma cells stop making antibodies and produce memory cells that remember the antigen
  104. Antimicrobial
    (immune system)
    A substance that kills or inhibits growth of micro-organisms with minimal damage to the host
  105. Antigen Presenting cell
    (immune system)
    A cell that displays foreign antigens with major histocompatibility complexes on their surface
  106. Antigen
    (immune system)
    A toxin that stimulates an immune response in the body
  107. Antibody
    (immune system)
    A blood protein that counteracts a specific antigen
  108. leukocyte
    (immune system)
    • White blood cells
    • Protect the body against disease
    • Produced in the red bone marrow
  109. Leukocyte can be classified as?

    (immune system)
    • Monocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells)
    • Granulocytes (neutrophild, basophils, and eosinophils)
    • T lymphocytes
    • B lymphocytes
    • Natural Killer cells (NKC)
  110. Info on DNA
    • The two strands the make up the DNA double helix and "read" by the cell in the 5 to 3 direction
    • The left strand is read from top to bottom, and right strand is read bottom to top
    • Base Pairs A-T linked by two hydrogen bonds, C-G linked by three
  111. Chromosomes
    • Highly condensed, threadlike rods of DNA
    • A "chapter" linking sentences with "punctuation marks" that regulate where a gene starts and ends which genes are read in which cell
  112. Gene
    A "sentence" made of a specific order of codons that produces a protein
  113. Codons
    • 64 possible combos of bases
    • Each codon specifies one amino acid, and these codons instruct ribosomes to assemble the AA in a particular order
  114. RNA
    • Consists of ribonucleotides containing a ribose sugar, a nitrogenous base, and are typically linked in signle strandes molecule
    • Functions as hereditary and regulation
    • RNA mediated the conversion of the info stored in DNA into the proteins that are encoded by genes
  115. Messenger RNA
    • Molecules are copies of the genetic info contained in DNA that is carried to ribosomes where catalytic ribosomal RNA molecules
    • Transfer RNA work together to make a function protein
  116. Cytoskeleton
    • cell shape, support and movement
    • (includes microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments)
  117. Microtubules
    Part of cytoskeleton
  118. Cytosol
    liquid material in cell
  119. Cell membrane
    Defines cell as barrier and slows enter/exit of materials
  120. Smooth ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum)
    • fatty acid and steriod (lipid) synthesis
    • Has no ribosomes
    • Help liver detox
  121. Rough ER (Endoplasmic Reticulum)
    • Protein synthesis and processing
    • Has ribosomes on surface
  122. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Transport network that is responsible for the transference of proteins throughout a cell
  123. Mitochondria
    • ATP production
    • Powerhouse of cell
  124. Centrosome
    (Animal Cells)
    • Forms motorists spindle (cell division)
    • Builds microtubules (non dividing cells)
    • Pairs of centrioles involved in mitosis
  125. Centriole
    (Animal Cells)
    Cylinders involved in cellular division
  126. Lysosomes
    (Animal Cells)
    break down digest molecules
  127. Cilia
    (Animal Cells)
    • Appendages extending from the surface of the cell
    • Moves the cell and results in fluid being moved by the cell
    • Cause cell to move
  128. Flagella
    (Animal Cells)
    Tail like structures on cell that use whip like movement to help move the cell
  129. Interphase (1)
    Mitosis
    Cell prepares for division by replicating genetic/cytoplasmic material
  130. Prophase (2)
    Mitosis
    • Chromatin thickens into chromosomes and the nuclear membrane beings to disintegrate
    • Pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of cells and spindle fiber form
  131. Metaphase (3)
    Mitosis
    Spindle moves to center of cells and chromosomes pairs align along center of spindle structure
  132. Anaphase (4)
    Mitosis
    Chromosomes pairs pull apart into daughter chromosomes
  133. Telophase (5)
    Mitosis
    Spindle disintegrates nuclear membrane reforms or is pinched
  134. Cytokinesis (6)
    Mitosis
    Physical splitting of cell
  135. Mitosis
    • 1. Interphase
    • 2. Prophase
    • 3. Metaphase
    • 4. Anaphase
    • 5. Telophase
    • 6. Cytokinesis
  136. Meiosis
    • Same as mitosis except happens twice
    • Results in 4 daughter cells instead of 2
  137. Veins
    Blood Vessels that carry blood in the heart
  138. Active Immunity
    • Distinguished protection through its active production by the body
    • Ex. Vaccinations
  139. Passive Immunity
    • Distinguishes protection through passive introduction of antibodies
    • Ex. Rapid treatment for snake bites
  140. Hemoglobin
    The protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
  141. Plasma Cell
    (immune system)
    A WBC that produces a single type of antibody
  142. Memory cell
    (immune system)
    A lymphocytes that responds to an antigen upon reintroduction
  143. Immunoglobulin
    (immune system)
    An antibody
  144. Bones
    (Skeletal System)
    • Synthesis blood and immune cells
    • Store calcium, phosphate and lipids
  145. 4 major types of bones
    (Skeletal System)
    • long
    • short
    • flat
    • irregular
  146. Canaliculi
    (Skeletal System)
    microscopic canals in ossified bone
  147. Cartilage
    (Skeletal System)
    Tough, elastic connective tissue
  148. Collagen
    (Skeletal System)
    The primary structural protein of connective tissue
  149. Haversian Canal
    (Skeletal System)
    Channels in bones that contain blood vessels and nerves
  150. Lamellae
    (Skeletal System)
    Layers of bone, tissue, or cell walls
  151. Lining Cells
    (Skeletal System)
    Flattened bone cells that come from osetoblasts
  152. Osteoblasts
    (Skeletal System)
    Cells that make bone marrow
  153. Osteoclasts
    (Skeletal System)
    Cells that remove bone
  154. Osteocytes
    (Skeletal System)
    Bone cells
  155. Osteons
    (Skeletal System)
    Cylindrical structures that comprise compact bone
  156. Volkmann Canal
    (Skeletal System)
    Channels in bone that transmit blood vessels and communicate with Haversian canals
  157. periosteum
    (Skeletal System)
    Fibrous sheath that covers bone and contains blood vessels and nerves
  158. Hydroxyapatite
    (Skeletal System)
    • Rich in phosphate
    • Found in osteon
  159. Osteoporosis
    (Skeletal System)
    A disease that causes brittle, fragile bones
  160. Brittle Bone Disease
    (Skeletal System)
    A group of diseases that affect collagen and result in fragile bones
  161. Osteoarthritis
    (Skeletal System)
    Degenerative joint disease
  162. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    (Skeletal System)
    • A progressive disease that causes joint inflammation and pain
    • autoimmune arthritis
  163. Autonomic nervous system
    (nervous system)
    • maintains homeostasis within the body by controlling the body functions
    • Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic
    • Controls involuntary actions including cardiac and smooth muscle, heart, digestion and breathing
  164. Nervous System
    the human nervous system senses, interprets, and issues commands as a response to conditions in the body's environment
  165. What strands of protein make up sacromere units?
    (nervous system)
    • Actin (thin filaments)
    • Myosin (thick filaments)
  166. Afferent nerves
    (nervous system)
    Sensory nerves that send messages to the CNS
  167. Efferent Nerves
    (nervous system)
    Motor nerves that send messages to muscles
  168. Sympathetic Nervous system
    (nervous system)
    • Controls the body's reaction to extreme, stressful and emergency situations
    • "fight or flight"
  169. Interneurons
    (nervous system)
    Transmit signals between neurons
  170. Motor neurons
    (nervous system)
    • Transmit signals from the CNS to the rest of the body
    • EX. signaling muscles or glands to respond
  171. Sensory neurons
    (nervous system)
    • transmit signals to the CNS from sensory receptors
    • associates with touch, pain, temperature, hearing, sight, smell, and taste
  172. Parasympathetic nervous system
    (nervous system)
    • counteracts the effects of sympathetic nervous system
    • "rest and digest" system
  173. Peripheral nervous system
    (nervous system)
    consists of nerves and ganglia
  174. Central nervous system
    • Controls five senses
    • Voluntary movement of skeletal muscle
    • Includes afferent and efferent nerves
    • Two primary components is the spinal cord and brain
  175. Pancreas
    (GI System)
    • Gland of the digestive and endocrine systems that produces insulin
    • Secrete pancreatic juices
    • secretes enzymes that help breakdown food
    • Secretes sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid
  176. Mouth Functions
    (GI System)
    • Breaks down food
    • Begins chemical digestion (specifically digestion of carbs/starches)
  177. Small Intestine
    (GI System)
    • Includes:duodenum
    •               jejunum
    •               ileum
    • where digestion and absorption of food occurs
    • absorbs most nutrients
  178. Large Intestine Functions
    (GI System)
    • Concentrates, mixes, and stores waste material
    • Absorbs water, ions, and vitamins
    • Produces some B vitamins and vitamin K
    • AKA colon
  179. Saliva
    (GI System)
    provides amylase and lipase to initiate chemical digestion
  180. Bolus
    (GI System)
    • A mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed
    • Propelled forward by peristalsis
    • bolus turns into chyme
  181. Three main stomach secretions
    (GI System)
    • Pepsinogen (chief cells)
    • mucous (goblet cells)
    • HCI (parietal cells)
  182. Chemical digestion of proteins is initiated in the stomach by the action of ...?
    (GI System)
    • pepsin
    • Which is activated by acid and autocatalyst
  183. Gall bladder
    (GI System)
    The organ that stores bile
  184. Liver
    (GI System)
    • largest solid organ in the body
    • production of bile
    • production of certain blood plasma proteins
    • production of cholesterol (and certain proteins needed to carry fats)
    • storage of excess glucose in the form of glycogen
    • regulation of amino acids
    • process hemoglobin (store iron)
    • conversion of ammonia to urea
    • purification of blood
    • regulation of blood clotting
    • controlling infections by boosting immune factors and removing bacteria
  185. Digestive system Functions
    (GI System)
    • Movement- mixes and passes nutrients through the system and elimnates waste
    • Secretion- enzymes, hormones and other substances necessary for digestion are secreted into the digestive tract
    • Digestion- includes the chemical breakdown of nutrients into smaller units that enter the internal environment
    • Absorption- the passage of nutrients through plasma membranes into the blood or lymph and then to the body
  186. Stomach
    (GI System)
    • Flexible, muscular sac
    • Functions:
    • mixing and storing food
    • dissolving and degrading food via secretions
    • controlling passage of food into the small intestine
    • protein digestion begins in the stomach
    • stomach acidity helps break down the food and make nutrients available for absorption
  187. Ribosomes
    Protein synthesis
  188. Golgi Apparatux/ complex
    • packages and sends proteins
    • assist in the transport
    • synthesizing material outside of cell
  189. Vacuoles
    • sacs used for storage, digestion and waste removal
    • plant- one large vacuoles
    • animal- small, sometimes numerous vacuoles
  190. Cephalad /cephalic
    towards the head
  191. Caudad
    towards the tail/ posterior
  192. Nervous tissue
    Neurons form a network through the body that control responses to change in the external and internal environment
  193. Muscle tissue
    • Helps support and move the body
    • 3 types: smooth
    •              cardiac
    •              skeletal
  194. Organelles
    • Coordinate with other organelles to performs a cells basic function
    • energy processing and waste excretion
    • Ex. Ribosomes, Golgi Apparatus, mitochrondria, nucleus
  195. Organs
    • Carry out single task
    • Ex. Oxygenated blood (lungs)
    • Filter out waste (kidneys)
    • nourish the body (digestive)
    • protecting the body from attacks (immune)
  196. Cells
    The basic structural unit of an organism from which living things are created
  197. Urinary Bladder
    The structure that stores urine in the body until elimination
  198. Urea
    The main nitrogenous part of urine
  199. Ureter
    The duct that conducts urine from the kidney to the bladder
  200. Blood flow
    • Right atruim
    • Tricuspid valve
    • Right ventricle
    • Pulmonary semlilunar valve
    • lungs
    • pulmonary veins
    • left atrium
    • bicuspid/mitral valve
    • left ventricle
    • Aortic semilunar valve
    • aorta
    • systemic arteries
    • body/ systemic circulation
    • superior/ inferior vena cava
    • right atrium/ beginning
  201. Proteasome
    Degrades bad proteins
  202. Chyme
    Semifluid mass of partly digested food that moves from the stomach to the small intestines
  203. Anus
    The opening of the rectum from which solid waste is expelled
  204. Nerve
    A bundle of axons that transmits electrical impulses to peripheral organs
  205. Reflex
    An involuntary movement in reaction to a stimulus
  206. Synapse
    The structure that allows neurons to pass signals to other neurons
  207. Renal Medulla
    The innermost part of the kidney
  208. Lymph
    Clear fluid that moves throughout the lymphatic system to fight disease
  209. Lymphocyte
    A substance of white blood cell found in lymph
  210. Plasma
    Pale yellow component of blood that carries red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets throughout the body
  211. 2 ways for cell reproduction
    • mitosis
    • meiosis
  212. Cartilage tissue
    • Cushions and provides structural support for the body parts
    • Jelly-like base and is fibrous
  213. Connective tissue
    • May be dense, loose or fatty
    • Protects and binds body parts
  214. Nuclear Pores
    involved in exchange of material between nucleus and the cytoplasm
  215. Nucleoplasm
    Liquid within the membrane and is similar to cytoplasm
  216. Nucleolus
    • Structure contained within the nucleus, consists of proteins
    • Small, round and does not have a membrane
    • Involved in protein synthesis, and synthesizes and store RNA
  217. Chromatin
    Consists of DNA and proteins that make up chromosomes
  218. Nucleus
    • Controls structure
    • Produce ribosomes
    • Direct cells
    • Regulates the DNA of a cell
    • Responsible for the passing on of genetic traits between generations
  219. Cell cycle
    The process by which a cell reproduces which involves cell growth, duplication of genetic material and cell division
  220. Epithelial tissue
    • cells are joined tightly
    • Ex. Skin tissue
  221. Bronchioles
    Small passages in the lungs that connect bronchi to alveoli
  222. Cystic Fibrosis
    • Genetic disorder that affects the lungs and other organs
    • Characterized by difficulty breathing, coughing up sputum and lung infections
  223. Cervix
    The passage that forms the lower part of the uterus
  224. Inborn
    Innate
  225. Phagocytosis
    Ingestion of particles by a cell or phagocytes
  226. Hormone
    A chemical substance that regulates specific processes in the body
  227. Nuclear Envelope
    • Encloses the nucleus
    • Consists of inner and outer membranes made of lipids
  228. Esophagus Functions
    Secretes mucus and transports food into the stomach
  229. Body Cavities
    Spaces within the body that contain and project internal organs
  230. Cellular Functions
    Processes that include growth, metabolism, replication, protein synthesis and movement
  231. Tissue
    Group of cells with similar structure that functions together as a unit
  232. Superior
    • Toward the head of the body
    • Above
  233. Medial
    • Towards midline
    • middle
    • away from sides
  234. Proximal
    • Towards center of body
    • Point of attachment
  235. Lateral
    • Away from midline
    • Toward the side
  236. Posterior
    Back
  237. Anterior
    Front
  238. Inferior
    • Away from the head
    • Below
  239. Transverse/ axial plane
    • Horizontal plane
    • Divides the body into upper and lower parts
    • Top/Bottom division
  240. Coronal/ Frontal plane
    • Vertical plane running from side to side
    • Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
    • Front/ back divsion
  241. Sagittal/ Lateral Plane
    • Vertical Plane running from front to back
    • Divides the body into right and left sides
    • Left/ Right Division
  242. Anatomical Position
    Standing positioning of the body as standing: feet together: arms to the side: head, eyes and palms of hands forward
  243. Distal
    • Away from the center of body
    • Point of attachment
  244. Bronchi
    Main passageways directly attached to the lungs
  245. Alveoli
    Tiny air sacs int he lungs where exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
  246. Asthma
    Lung disease characterized by inflamed, narrowed airways and difficulty breathing
  247. Capillary
    Small blood vessels that connect arterioles to venules
  248. Rectum
    • Last section of the large intestine
    • Ending with the anus
  249. Peristalsis
    A series of muscles contractions that move food through the digestive tract
  250. Muscle
    • Soft tissue that produces force and motion to move the body
    • Primary component is protein
  251. Contraction
    Shortening or elongating a muscle to perform muscle actions
  252. Axon
    Nerve fiber
  253. Peroxisome
    Oxidation and detoxification
  254. Respiratory Directions
    • Air
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • lungs
    • Alveoli
  255. Perfusion
    (Respiratory system)
    The passage of fluid to an organ or a tissue
  256. Pleura
    (Respiratory system)
    Membrane around the lungs and inside the chest cavity
  257. Surfactant
    (Respiratory system)
    Fluid secreted by alveoli and found in the lungs
  258. Tidal Volume
    (Respiratory system)
    The amount of air breathed in a normal inhalation or exhalation
  259. Trachea
    (Respiratory system)
    • The windpipe
    • Connects the larynx to the lungs
  260. Ventilation
    (Respiratory system)
    The movement of air in and out of the body via inhalation and exhalation
  261. medulla oblongata
    (Respiratory system)
    Controls Respiration
  262. How many lobes does the left lung and right lung have?
    (Respiratory system)
    • right lung= 3 lobes
    • left lung= 2 lobes
  263. Functions of the Respiratory system
    • Supply the body with oxygen and rid the body of carbon dioxide
    • Filters air
    • responsible for speech
    • Vital in cough production
    • Sense of smell
  264. Arteries
    (cardiovascular system)
    • Blood vessels that deliver blood from the heart to other parts of the body
    • Carry blood away from heart
  265. Pulmonary loop
    (cardiovascular system)
    • Carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium
    • (to lungs then body)
  266. Systemic loop
    (cardiovascular system)
    • Carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the body returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium
    • (To body)
  267. Systole
    (cardiovascular system)
    • The portion of the cardiac cyctle in which the heart expels blood
    • Ventricles contract 2 AV valves (mitral and tricuspid) close = "lub"
  268. Diastole
    (cardiovascular system)
    • Portion of the cardiac cycle in which the heart refills with blood
    • Ventricles fill 2 semilunar valves close ="dub"
  269. Sinoatrial node (SA node)
    (cardiovascular system)
    "pacemaker of heart"
  270. Cardiovascular System
    • The system comprised of the heart and blood vessels
    • Responsible for the internal transport of substances to and from the cells
  271. Spleen
    (cardiovascular system)
    • In the upper left of the abdomen
    • located behind the stomach and immediately below the diaphragm
    • Functions:
    • -Filters unwanted materials from the blood (including old red blood cells)
    • -help fight infections
  272. Red blood cells
    (cardiovascular system)
    • Transport oxygen to cells
    • Form in the bone marrow and can live for two month
  273. Heart
    (cardiovascular system)Th
    • The muscle that pumps blood throughout the body
    • The heart has its own circulatory system with its own coronary arteries
    • Functions by contracting and relaxing
  274. Lymphatic system
    (cardiovascular system)
    • Main function is to return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream
    • The major function of the lymph vascular system
    • the return of excess fluid to the blood
    • The return of protein from the capillaries
    • The transport of fats from the digestive tract
    • The disposal of debris and cellular waste
  275. Blood
    (cardiovascular system)
    • Transports oxygen to cells and removes waste
    • Carries hormones and defends against disease
    • Humans has 5 quarts
  276. Non-Polar / Fat Soluble hormones
    (Endocrine system)
    • Such as estrogen and progesterone
    • Released in pattern set by age and development
    • Actions long lived
  277. Polar/ Water-soluble hormones
    (Endocrine system)
    • Such as epinephrine
    • Are released acutely in response to stress
    • Actions are short lived
  278. What integrate at the hypothalamus?
    (Endocrine system)
    Nervous and endocrine systems
  279. Hypothalamus
    (Endocrine system)
    Receives signal, signals activate pituitary, this sends releasing hormones to other glands in the body controls their hormone production
  280. Adrenal Cortex
    (Endocrine system)
    • monitors blood sugar level
    • Helps in lipid and protein metabolism
  281. Adrenal Medulla
    (Endocrine system)
    • Controls cardiac function
    • Raises blood sugar and controls the size of blood vessels
  282. Pancreas Islets
    (Endocrine system)
    • Raises and lower blood sugar
    • Active in carbohydrate metabolism
  283. Integumentary system
    Organ system comprised of the exterior of the body to protect the body from damage
  284. Epidermis
    (Integumentary System)
    • Outer layer of skin
    • Most superficial layer of skin
    • Consists of epithelial cells
    • The deepest portion is stratum basale
  285. Dermis
    (Integumentary System)
    • The skin
    • Consists mostly of connective tissue
    • Contains blood vessels, sensory receptors, hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat gland
    • Contains elastin and collagen fibers
  286. Hypodermis (Subcutaneous layer)
    (Integumentary System)
    • Not a layer of the skin
    • consists of connective tissue, which binds the skin to the underlying muscles
    • Fat deposits here to help cushion and insulate the body
  287. Sudoriferous Glands
    (Integumentary System)
    Excrete minerals such as magnesium, chloride and sodium
  288. Sebaceous glands
    (Integumentary System)
    • Produce sweat
    • Holocrine glands secrete sebum
    • Connected to hair follicles and secrete sebum through the hair pores
  289. Sebum
    (Integumentary System)
    • An oily mixture of lipids and proteins
    • Inhibits water loss from the skin and protects against bacterial and fungal infections
  290. Seat glands
    (Integumentary System)
    • Aprocrine or eccrine
    • Serve as excretory organs and help rid the body of metabolic wastes
  291. Eccrine Glands
    (Integumentary System)
    • Not connected to hair follicles
    • Activated by body temperature
    • Found on forehead, neck and back
    • Secrete a salty solution of electrolytes and water containing sodium chloride, potassium, bicarbonate glucose and peptides
  292. Aprocrine Gland
    (Integumentary System)
    • Secrete an oily solution containing fatty acids, triglycerides and proteins
    • Located in the armpits, groin, palms and soles of feet
    • Secrete this oily sweat when a person experience stress or anxiety
    • Bacteria feeds on this and expel aromatic fatty acids producing body odor
  293. Layers of Skin
    (Integumentary System)
    • Epidermis (outer)
    • Dermis (middle)
    • Hypodermis/ subcutaneous (inner)
  294. Female Reproductive System
    (Reproductive system)
    • Produce ova (egg cells), transfer the ova to the Fallopian tubes for fertilization, receive the sperm, provide protective, nourishing environment for the developing embryo
    • The bartholins gland secrete a lubricating fluid.
  295. Prostate
    (Reproductive system)
    The gland in males that controls the release of urine and secretes a part of semen that enhances motility and fertility of sperm
  296. Seminal Vesicles
    (Reproductive system)
    Produce the fluids necessary for lubricating and nourishing the sperm
  297. What form the conduct through which sperm is ejected?
    (Reproductive system)
    • Vas deferns
    • Urethra
    • Penis
  298. Vas deferens
    (Reproductive system)
    The duct in which sperm moves from a testicle to the urethra
  299. Estrogen
    (Reproductive system)
    • Female sex hormones
    • Causes the egg to mature in the ovaries graafian follicle
    • The uterine endometrium is thickened
  300. Urethra
    (Reproductive system)
    The tube that connects the bladder to the exterior of the female body
  301. Corpus luteum
    (Reproductive system)
    • Empty Graafian follicle
    • Produces large amounts of progesterone to prepare the endometrium for implantation of the egg
    • A surge of LH, luteinizing hormone, from the pituitary cause the developing egg to release
  302. Male Reproductive system
    (Reproductive system)
    • produce, maintain and transfer sperm and semen into the female
    • The epididymis stores the sperm as it matures
    • The hormones associated with the male include follicle- stimulating hormone, which stimulates spermatogenesis; lutenizing hormone, which stimulates testosterone, which is responsible for the male sex characteristics

Card Set Information

Author:
bowzbabi1
ID:
330261
Filename:
Teas Science
Updated:
2017-04-11 14:01:27
Tags:
nursing
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Description:
entrance nursing exam
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