Chem 4, College of the Desert, Chapter 17.txt

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Chem 4, College of the Desert, Chapter 17.txt
2011-06-23 18:13:02
Chapter17 Chem4

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  1. Retrovirus
    A virus that contains RNA as it's genetic material and synthesizes a complimentary DNA strand inside a cell.
  2. RNA
    Ribonuclaic Acid, a type of nucleic acid that is a single strand of nucleotides containing Adenuic, Cytosine, Guanine, and Uracil.
  3. rRNA
    Ribosomal RNA: the most prevalent type of RNA; A major component of the ribosome.
  4. Substitution
    A mutation that replaces one base in a DNA with a different Base.
  5. Transcription
    The transfer of genetic information from DNA by the formation of mRNA.
  6. Trasnslation
    The interpritation of the codons im mRNA as amino acids in a peptide.
  7. tNRA
    Transfer RNA: a RNA that replaces a specific amino acid into a peptide chain at the ribosome. There is one or more tRNA for each of the 20 different amino acids.
  8. Virus
    Small particles containing DNA or RNA in a protein coat that require a host cell for replication.
  9. Anticodon
    The triplet of bases in the center loop of tRNA that is complementary to a codon on mRNA
  10. Codon
    A sequence of three bases in mRNA that specifies a certain amino acid to be placed in a protein. A few codons signal the start or stop of transcription.
  11. DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid: the genetic material of all cells containing nucleotides with deoxyribos sugar, phosphate, and the four bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
  12. Phosphodiester Bond
    The phosphate link that joins the 3 hydroxyl group in one nucliotide to the phosphate group on the 5-carbon atom in the next nucleotide.
  13. Double Helix
    The helical shape of the double chain of DNA that is like a spiral staircase with a sugar - phosphate backbone on the outside and base pairs like stair steps on the inside.
  14. Frameshift
    Mutation: a mutation that inserts or deletes a base in a DNA sequence.
  15. Generic Code
    The information in DNA that is transfered to mRNA is a sequence of codons for the sythesis of protien.
  16. Nucleotides
    Building blocks of a nucleic acid, consisting of a base, a pentos sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group.
  17. Nucliosides
    The combination of a pentose sugar and a base.
  18. mRNA
    Messenger RNA: product in the nucleus base DNA to carry the genetic information to the ribosome for the construction of a protein.
  19. Genetic Disease
    A physical malformation or metabolic dysfunction caused by a mutation in the base sequence of DNA.