PSYC 376 Unit 10

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  1. When testimonial supports were first introduced in Canada, there was a great deal of legal argument that they infringed rights of accused persons. What are the two primary Charter rights that were at the centre of this argument (you do not have to provide the Charter section number)?
    The right to be presumed innocent (s. 11(d)

    The right to a fair trial (s. 7)
  2. Goodman et al (1992) as well as Quas et al. (2005) followed up with child witnesses who testified and did not testify in criminal court. What does this tell us about the long-term consequences of testifying live versus testifying with supports? Explain your answer.
    Nothing (1). To study this question one would need to follow up with a children who testified live and children who testified with supports. (1) At the time the study was done, children rarely used testimonial support and so a group of children who testified with supports was not available (1)
  3. Based on Goodman et al. (1998) and Orcutt et al (2001) does CCTV make an accused person appear more likely to be guilty? Explain the studies, the finding, and conclusions.
    In Goodman et al (1998) 6- and 8- year old children participated, individually, in a play session with a male experimenter during which the child made a movie. (1) During the taping of the movie, the child put a costume overtop of his/her clothes and then was instructed by the male experimenter to place stickers on his/her bare flesh (guilty condition) (1) or on his/her cloths (not guilty condition). (1) Two weeks after the play session, each child came to an actual courtroom (1) and was told that the male experimenter may have done something wrong, perhaps he should not have made a movie of stickers being put on bare skin, (1). In the courtroom, actors played the parts of the judge, the prosecutor, and the defense lawyer. (1) Children testified either live of via CCTV (1). Community members acted as jurors. (1) They listened to the child, rated the child on several characteristics and provided a verdict.(1)

     

    Trial condition affected actual accuracy such that children were more accurate in the CCTV condition than in the live condition. (1) However, perceptions of accuracy were lower in the CCTV condition than in the live condition. (1) Both related to verdict such that an increase in actual accuracy was associated with an increase in guilt ratings (1) and a decrease in perceived accuracy was associated with fewer guilty verdicts (1) So, the positive effect of CCTV on actual accuracy could be masked by a negative effect of CCTV on perceptions of accuracy (1).

     

    Orcutt et al (2001) was very similar except that some children who were in the not guilty condition (stickers were placed on their cloths rather than then bare skin) were instructed to testify that stickers had been placed on their bare skin. (1)

    Jurors were more likely to convict in the live condition than in the CCTV condition. (1) And, children received higher ratings on measure of credibility in the live condition than in the CCTV condition. (1). The meditational analysis indicates that the relationship between the type of testimony and verdict is mediated through perceptions of the child’s accuracy (1).

     

    Based on Goodman and Orcutt, there is no evidence that the use of CCTV has a detrimental effect on perceptions of the accused (1) and it may even reduce the chances of a conviction by reducing perceptions of the child. (1)
  4. Discuss the vividness hypothesis and data that has been used to support it.
    Landstrom and Granhag (2010) argued that perceived credibility is influenced by the vividness of the report: A more vivid report is seen as more credible than a less vivid report (1). Two factors that make a report vivid are temporal and locational proximity. A report that is closer in time (1) and space (1) is seen as more believable than a report that is more spatially and temporally distant. Live testimony is more vivid than evidence presented on CCTV or videotape (1).

     

    To test their hypothesis Landstrom and Granhag (2010) had 10- to 11-year old children engaged in an event that was later described (1). Children’s descriptions were viewed by mock jurors either live, via CCTV, or from videotape. (1) According to the vividness hypothesis, the live testimony should be most credible, the CCTV testimony intermediate, and the videotaped testimony should be least credible. (1) That is what they found.

     

    A more vivid report should also be remembered better than a less vivid report. (1) In Landstrom and Granhag (2007) participants’ ratings of the quality of their memory and measures of actual memory (1) of what the child had said were higher in the live condition than in the video condition. (1)
  5. In Canada an accused has a right to face his or her accuser in which circumstance
    d. This is not a specific right in Canada
  6. What is the ultimate purpose of testimonial supports?
    a. To provide a full and candid account of the alleged offence
  7. Testimonial supports must be made available to witnesses upon request. This statement is ______
    d. True if the witness is under the age of 18
  8. When screens are used as testimonial supports, the purpose is to block the view between the child and the _______ .
    a. accused
  9. When CCTV is used, from where does the child typically testify?
    c. In a room inside the courthouse
  10. A judge may decline an application for a child to use testimonial supports in which of the following condition?
    b. When testimonial supports will interfere with the proper administration of justice
  11. When a support person is permitted, the support person may remind the child of his or her previous answers to questions. This statement is ______.
    b. False
  12. When videotaped statements are admitted in lieu of the child’s evidence-in-chief, several conditions are necessary. Which of the following is not necessary?
    d. The child is under the age of 18 years at trial
  13. What does it mean to “adopt” the contents of the videotape?
    b. The child must testify that she recalls the interview and she was being honest
  14. What advice would you give to a lawyer who is trying to decide which testimonial support to apply for?
    d. The lawyer can apply for multiple supports, a decision on one is not necessary
  15. What is the most potent source of stress for child witnesses?
    d. Facing the accused
  16. What is a leading Supreme Court of Canada case on testimonial supports?
    d. R. v. Levogiannis
  17. __________ can be long-lasting.
    c. Anticipatory and testimonial stress
  18. Pretrial preparation is primarily targeted to reduce what?
    a. Anticipatory stress
  19. Children who testify with the use of testimonial supports have better long-term mental health than children who testify live in court. This statement ____
    d. has not been studied
  20. Hamlyn (2004) reported that in the United Kingdom __% of the children who were offered CCTV used it and __% reported that it helped.
    c. 87%, 90%
  21. Some children are not adversely affected by testifying in person in court. This statement is ______________.
    d. true
  22. Which of the following is a challenge to simulation studies on testimonial supports?
    a. Inability to replicate the type and source of stress
  23. In actual trials, children who testify in court may be different in important ways from children who testify with testimonial support. This is a problem with ______
    d. External validity
  24. Goodman, Quas, Bulkley, and Shapiro (1999) studied verdicts in trial where the child testified with CCTV and trial where the child testified in person in court. What did they find?
    a. CCTV was associated with fewer guilty verdicts
  25. Goodman et al. (1998) compared children’ testimony in a live versus CCTV condition. Mock jurors rated the fairness of the trial in each condition, In which condition, if any, was the trial considered to be more fair to the accused?
    c. Ratings of fairness were similar across conditions
  26. Orcutt et al (2001) found that relative to children who testified live, children who testified via CCTV were judged to be _______ honest.
    c. less
  27. Orcutt et al (2001) ran a mediation analysis. What did they find?
    c. The relationship between type of testimony and verdict is mediated through perceived accuracy
  28. In Landstrom and Granhag (2007), children who testified live were seen as ________ convincing and ______ memorable than children whose testimony was presented on videotape.
    a. More, more
  29. In a study reported by Ross, Hopkins, Hanson, Lindsay, Hazen, and Eslinger (1994) a child testified live, from behind a screen, or her evidence was presented via videotape. Mock jurors rated the guilt of the accused. In Experiment 1, the entire trial was shown; in Experiment 2, mock jurors watched only until the child’s evidence was presented. Compared to evidence presented from behind a screen, ratings of guilt were _______ in the live condition of Experiment 1 and ______ in the live condition of Experiment 2.
    c. Similar, higher
  30. In which condition is deception detection most accurate?
    d. None, they are all the same

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PSYC 376 Unit 10
Updated:
2017-04-14 23:24:38
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