CTU

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Author:
Dano
ID:
33041
Filename:
CTU
Updated:
2010-09-06 17:19:21
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Radiobiology
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Chapter 9
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  1. What organizations provide reports and recommendations?
    UNSCEAR AND ICRP
  2. WHAT ORGANIZATION REGULATES THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF X-RAY EQUIPMENT
    FDA
  3. THE MINIMUM FIELD SIZE AT 100 cm MUST NOT BE LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO:
    5X5 cm
  4. EXPOSURE FROM A FLUOROSCOPIC UNIT THAT IS NOT DIRECTED TO THE IMAGE RECEPTOR MUST BE LESS THAN _______ mR/hr at 10 cm.
    2
  5. IN NO CASE MAY A MOBILE C-ARM BE OPERATED AT LESS THAN ____ cm SOURCE-TO-SKIN DISTANCE.
    20
  6. AN AREA WHERE THE RADIATION LEVEL COULD REACH 60 mrem/hr WOULD BE CLASSIFIED AS A
    RADIATION AREA
  7. WHAT TERM IS PREFERRED OVER MPD (MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSE)?
    DOSE EQUIVALENT LIMITS
  8. A 30 YEAR-OLD RADIATION WORKER WOULD BE ALLOWED, UNDER NEWER STANDARDS (NCRP REPORT NO. 91), ___ rem WHOLE-BODY CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE.
    30
  9. IF HOLDING A PATIENT, ANY AREA OF THE BODY STRUCK BY THE BEAM MUST BE COVERED WITH ___ mm OF LEAD EQUIVALENT.
    0.5
  10. A TOTAL OF 500 mrem TO THE MOTHER (OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE) WOULD BE EQUIVALENT TO ABOUT ___ mrem TO THE FETUS.
    10
  11. TRUE OR FALSE

    THE ANNUAL RADIATION DOSE LIMIT FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC IS SET NOT TO EXCEED 1 mSV (100 mrem) for continuous or frequent exposure.
    TRUE
  12. TRUE OR FALSE

    THE ANNUAL RADIATION DOSE LIMIT FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC IS SET NOT TO EXCEED 5 mSV (500 mrem) FOR INFREQUENT EXPOSURE.
    TRUE
  13. THE RADIATION DOSE TO THE EMBRYO OR FETUS OF A PREGNANT RADIATION WORKER IS RESTRICTED TO RADIATION EXPOSURE OF NO MORE THAN:
    500 mrem and 50 mrem per month
  14. The principle behind ALARA states that:
    Exposure of personnel to any radiation source should be kept as low as reasonably achievable considering the economic and social aspects.
  15. True or False

    The annual maximum permissible dose to the lens of the eye (general public) is 5 rem.
    True
  16. True or False

    The level of dose limit for minors (under 18) is lower than that for grown adults.
    True
  17. The maximum dose allowed to a fetus/embryo of a radiation worker is set at 0.5 rem and 0.05 rem/month
    True
  18. true or false

    the annual maximum permissible dose to the whole body (radiation worker) is 5 rem.
    True
  19. The three basic principles that guide radiation protection are:
    Time, distance, shielding
  20. True or False

    Personnel monitoring radiation badges are to be worn at all times during the pregnancy while performing any radiation-related duties.
    True
  21. True or False

    Personnel monitoring radiation badges for nonpregnant women should be worn either on the collar or the abdomen or both.
    True.
  22. Who can be a radiation saftey officer?
    radiologist, rad. oncologist, rad therapist, diagnostic tech w/ advanced training
  23. what are other terms for the saftey health officer?
    health physicist, medical physicist, radiation saftey officer
  24. True or False

    a single photon can cause damage.
    True
  25. Name some regulatory agencies and what do they do?
    NRC - US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - establishes regulations and standards for protection against radiation hazards.

    EPA - US Environmental Protection Agency - development and enforcement related to the control of radiation in the environment.

    FDA - US Food and Drug Administration - regulates the design and manufacture of electronic products and performs spot compliance checks
  26. Describe/Define

    Shall
    Should
    Shall means you will do it! Mandatory

    Should means they recommend it, but is not mandatory
  27. Regulations

    Beam Quality
    • Measured in HVL
    • 30-50 kVp minimum 0.3-1.2 HVL
    • 50-70 kVp minimum 1.2-1.5 HVL
    • 70-up kVp minimum 1.5-4.1 HVL
  28. Regulations

    Reproducibility of the beam and timer mechanism
    Must terminate exposure at a consistent exposure

    single phase 2 pulse - spinning top

    • 120 x seconds = # of dots
    • timer mechanism
  29. HVL and energy have what type of relationship?
    direct. if energy goes up HVL goes up
  30. Regulations

    Linearity of mA stations
    • must be within 10%
    • checked by making 10 exposures at 2 consectutive settings within 1 hour
  31. Regulations

    Beam collimation and alignment
    x-ray field must allign to center of IR within 2% SID (+ or - 2%)

    PBL must not allow field size to exceed IR size greater than 3% of SID
  32. What are the special requirements for fluoro?
    • Protective barrier must limit leakage radiation to 2 mR/hr at 10 cm.
    • Max rate of 10 R/min, should not exceed 5 R/min.
    • SOD must be no less than 15" for stationary, and 12" for portable/mobile
    • Audible timer must indicate 5 minutes of exposure
  33. State Licensure of RTs
    • ARRT certification is VOLUNTARY
    • statistics show that as many as half of operators are not certified
    • studies show certified operators provide better patient protection (1 reason why some states have
    • adopted licensure)
  34. Radiation Saftey Program

    Who directs the saftery program?
    What programs should it involve?
    RSO - radiation saftey officer

    • a. objectives
    • b. tissues at risk
    • c. risk assessment
    • d. maximum permissible dose equivalent
    • e. training
    • f. minimizing exam exposure
    • g. reducing repeats
    • h. pregnant patients
    • i. all aspects of protection of personnel and patients
  35. What are the barrier types?
    Primary - designed to attenuate radiation resulting from the primary beam.

    Secondary - designed to attenuate radiation resulting from leakage or scatter radiation.
  36. work areas

    unrestricted - exposure same as background exposure - no requirements

    restricted - radiation area 5-100 mrem/hr
    controlled access
    radiation area sign

    HIGH RADIATION AREA - MORE THAN 100 mrem/hr
    requires door interlocks
  37. what are the examples of personnel monitoring devices
    Film badge - 2 pieces of film in light tight paper, plastic holder w/ series of filters, reading of film density will indicate exposure levels.

    Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TDL) calcium fluroide with manganese, stores energy from exposure until heated.
  38. when must monitoring occur?
    when dose expected to recv 10% of dose equivalent limits
  39. Occupational Exposure

    effective dose limits are:
    annual at 5 rem

    cumulative at 1 rem x age
  40. occupational exposure

    tissue and organs
    lens of the eye 15 rem

    skin, hand, feet 50 rem
  41. occupational exposure

    non-rad workers
    10% of occupational limits (1.5 mrem)
  42. Fetal Dose

    Duration of pregnancy

    Per month
    DOP = .5 rem

    PM = .05
  43. Negligible Individual Risk Level
    (new concept)
    1 mrem
  44. Exposure control
    occupational exposure only involves exposure form performing ones job

    does not mean diagnostic procedure performed on the tech (do not wear badge then)
  45. Control booth

    walls
    exposure switch
    design
    • walls minimum of 7 feet high
    • exp. switch - cannot be reached when in the room
    • booth design so photons must scatter at least 2x before reaching behind protective barrier
  46. protective garments

    other than patient
    primary beam .5 mm lead

    scatter .25 mm lead

    for fluoro must use primary barrier - apron must be .5 mm thick
  47. Holding patients/film
    mechanical device first choice

    • last resort - human - prefer male relative of patient
    • must be shielded by .25 mm lead

    if pt. holds film, must shield using .5 mm lead
  48. pregnant patient

    questions
    • LMP
    • pregnancy test
    • signs instructing to edu tech that u r pregnant
    • 10 day rule
    • 28 day rule
  49. define

    10 day rule

    28 day rule
    10 day - within 1st 10 days of onset menustration

    28 day - within 28 days of last onset menustration
  50. pregnant employees
    • exposure is limited to .5 rem for duration of pregnancy
    • or
    • .05/month

    declaration is voluntary

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