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What organizations provide reports and recommendations?
UNSCEAR AND ICRP
WHAT ORGANIZATION REGULATES THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF X-RAY EQUIPMENT
THE MINIMUM FIELD SIZE AT 100 cm MUST NOT BE LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO:
EXPOSURE FROM A FLUOROSCOPIC UNIT THAT IS NOT DIRECTED TO THE IMAGE RECEPTOR MUST BE LESS THAN _______ mR/hr at 10 cm.
IN NO CASE MAY A MOBILE C-ARM BE OPERATED AT LESS THAN ____ cm SOURCE-TO-SKIN DISTANCE.
AN AREA WHERE THE RADIATION LEVEL COULD REACH 60 mrem/hr WOULD BE CLASSIFIED AS A
WHAT TERM IS PREFERRED OVER MPD (MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE DOSE)?
DOSE EQUIVALENT LIMITS
A 30 YEAR-OLD RADIATION WORKER WOULD BE ALLOWED, UNDER NEWER STANDARDS (NCRP REPORT NO. 91), ___ rem WHOLE-BODY CUMULATIVE EXPOSURE.
IF HOLDING A PATIENT, ANY AREA OF THE BODY STRUCK BY THE BEAM MUST BE COVERED WITH ___ mm OF LEAD EQUIVALENT.
A TOTAL OF 500 mrem TO THE MOTHER (OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE) WOULD BE EQUIVALENT TO ABOUT ___ mrem TO THE FETUS.
TRUE OR FALSE
THE ANNUAL RADIATION DOSE LIMIT FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC IS SET NOT TO EXCEED 1 mSV (100 mrem) for continuous or frequent exposure.
TRUE OR FALSE
THE ANNUAL RADIATION DOSE LIMIT FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC IS SET NOT TO EXCEED 5 mSV (500 mrem) FOR INFREQUENT EXPOSURE.
THE RADIATION DOSE TO THE EMBRYO OR FETUS OF A PREGNANT RADIATION WORKER IS RESTRICTED TO RADIATION EXPOSURE OF NO MORE THAN:
500 mrem and 50 mrem per month
The principle behind ALARA states that:
Exposure of personnel to any radiation source should be kept as low as reasonably achievable considering the economic and social aspects.
True or False
The annual maximum permissible dose to the lens of the eye (general public) is 5 rem.
True or False
The level of dose limit for minors (under 18) is lower than that for grown adults.
The maximum dose allowed to a fetus/embryo of a radiation worker is set at 0.5 rem and 0.05 rem/month
true or false
the annual maximum permissible dose to the whole body (radiation worker) is 5 rem.
The three basic principles that guide radiation protection are:
Time, distance, shielding
True or False
Personnel monitoring radiation badges are to be worn at all times during the pregnancy while performing any radiation-related duties.
True or False
Personnel monitoring radiation badges for nonpregnant women should be worn either on the collar or the abdomen or both.
Who can be a radiation saftey officer?
radiologist, rad. oncologist, rad therapist, diagnostic tech w/ advanced training
what are other terms for the saftey health officer?
health physicist, medical physicist, radiation saftey officer
True or False
a single photon can cause damage.
Name some regulatory agencies and what do they do?
NRC - US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - establishes regulations and standards for protection against radiation hazards.
EPA - US Environmental Protection Agency - development and enforcement related to the control of radiation in the environment.
FDA - US Food and Drug Administration - regulates the design and manufacture of electronic products and performs spot compliance checks
Shall means you will do it! Mandatory
Should means they recommend it, but is not mandatory
- Measured in HVL
- 30-50 kVp minimum 0.3-1.2 HVL
- 50-70 kVp minimum 1.2-1.5 HVL
- 70-up kVp minimum 1.5-4.1 HVL
Reproducibility of the beam and timer mechanism
Must terminate exposure at a consistent exposure
single phase 2 pulse - spinning top
- 120 x seconds = # of dots
- timer mechanism
HVL and energy have what type of relationship?
direct. if energy goes up HVL goes up
Linearity of mA stations
- must be within 10%
- checked by making 10 exposures at 2 consectutive settings within 1 hour
Beam collimation and alignment
x-ray field must allign to center of IR within 2% SID (+ or - 2%)
PBL must not allow field size to exceed IR size greater than 3% of SID
What are the special requirements for fluoro?
- Protective barrier must limit leakage radiation to 2 mR/hr at 10 cm.
- Max rate of 10 R/min, should not exceed 5 R/min.
- SOD must be no less than 15" for stationary, and 12" for portable/mobile
- Audible timer must indicate 5 minutes of exposure
State Licensure of RTs
- ARRT certification is VOLUNTARY
- statistics show that as many as half of operators are not certified
- studies show certified operators provide better patient protection (1 reason why some states have
- adopted licensure)
Radiation Saftey Program
Who directs the saftery program?
What programs should it involve?
RSO - radiation saftey officer
- a. objectives
- b. tissues at risk
- c. risk assessment
- d. maximum permissible dose equivalent
- e. training
- f. minimizing exam exposure
- g. reducing repeats
- h. pregnant patients
- i. all aspects of protection of personnel and patients
What are the barrier types?
Primary - designed to attenuate radiation resulting from the primary beam.
Secondary - designed to attenuate radiation resulting from leakage or scatter radiation.
unrestricted - exposure same as background exposure - no requirements
restricted - radiation area 5-100 mrem/hr
radiation area sign
HIGH RADIATION AREA - MORE THAN 100 mrem/hr
requires door interlocks
what are the examples of personnel monitoring devices
Film badge - 2 pieces of film in light tight paper, plastic holder w/ series of filters, reading of film density will indicate exposure levels.
Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TDL) calcium fluroide with manganese, stores energy from exposure until heated.
when must monitoring occur?
when dose expected to recv 10% of dose equivalent limits
effective dose limits are:
annual at 5 rem
cumulative at 1 rem x age
tissue and organs
lens of the eye 15 rem
skin, hand, feet 50 rem
10% of occupational limits (1.5 mrem)
Duration of pregnancy
DOP = .5 rem
PM = .05
Negligible Individual Risk Level
occupational exposure only involves exposure form performing ones job
does not mean diagnostic procedure performed on the tech (do not wear badge then)
- walls minimum of 7 feet high
- exp. switch - cannot be reached when in the room
- booth design so photons must scatter at least 2x before reaching behind protective barrier
other than patient
primary beam .5 mm lead
scatter .25 mm lead
for fluoro must use primary barrier - apron must be .5 mm thick
mechanical device first choice
- last resort - human - prefer male relative of patient
- must be shielded by .25 mm lead
if pt. holds film, must shield using .5 mm lead
- pregnancy test
- signs instructing to edu tech that u r pregnant
- 10 day rule
- 28 day rule
10 day rule
28 day rule
10 day - within 1st 10 days of onset menustration
28 day - within 28 days of last onset menustration
- exposure is limited to .5 rem for duration of pregnancy
declaration is voluntary