GMan - Chemical carcinogens

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The flashcards below were created by user Ant on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. First chemicals/professions associated with cancer
    • Snuff - Nasal
    • Chimney sweeps - Scrotum
  2. Cancer associated with tanners
    Bladder cancer, from 2-napthylamine exposure
  3. Three principles of carcinogenesis
    • Long delay
    • Dose dependance
    • Organ specificity
  4. Examples of carcinogens and target organs
    • 2-Napthylamine - Bladder
    • Aflatoxin - Liver
    • Benzene - Bone marrow/white blood cells (leukemia)
    • Asbestos - Lungs (Mesothelioma)
  5. First evidence of asbestos and mesothelioma
    • Asbestos miners presented in high numbers with mesothelioma
    • Later people working with asbestos
  6. Occupational carcinogens
    • Asbestos
    • Benzene
    • Chromium
    • Coal-tars
    • Vinyl chloride
  7. Dioxins
    • Chlorinated, aromatic chemcials
    • Cause cancer in high doses
    • Reduce cancer in low doses
  8. Relative risk increase of living in a polluted city and smoking
    • City - 10% increase
    • Smoking - 2500% increase
  9. Why is measuring cancer risk for low exposure difficult
    • Low associated risk makes measurement tricky
    • Protective effects
    • Overuse on animal models
    • Tests often involve high doses
  10. Two models for maximum tolerated dose
    • Linear (No low limit)
    • Threshold (considers low, safe limit)
  11. Hormetic model
    Optimally (low-but-not-too-low) exposure to protect against carcinogens
  12. Mechanisms considered in the threshold and hormetic models
    • Homeostasis
    • DNA damage surveillence
  13. Saccharin
    • Thought to be carcinogenic to humans (bladder)
    • Turns out it was mainly carcinogenic to rats (bad model organism)
  14. Six categories of chemical carcinogens
    • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
    • Aromatic amines
    • N-nitroso compounds
    • Alkylating agents
    • Natural products
    • Inorganic substances
  15. Example of polyaromatic hydrocarbons
    • Coal tar, soot, cigarette smoke, BBQ meat
    • Incomplete combustion
  16. Aromatic amines
    • Phe-NH2
    • Many contain azo groups (N=N)
    • 2-Napthylamine (dyes)
  17. N-nitroso compounds
    • Organics, with N-N=O
    • Methylnitrosourea
  18. Alkylating agents
    • Defined by reactivity, note structure
    • Vinyl chloride

Card Set Information

Author:
Ant
ID:
330484
Filename:
GMan - Chemical carcinogens
Updated:
2017-04-17 05:36:21
Tags:
GMan
Folders:
Gman
Description:
Gman
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