Antigen (Ag): Molecule capable of eliciting an antibody attack when foreign antigens are present. ie: bacteria, viruses, pollen, animal dander, food and drug allergen.
Antibodies (Ab): Proteins produced by B lymphocytes in response to a specific foreign antigen, capable of binding antigen specifically. Binds to Ag in variable regions and activates compliment cascade (inflammation, chemotaxis, lysis) in constant regions.
3 classes of Antibodies: Highest serum percentage to least.
Where are antibodies most effective when attacking an antigen?
Effectiveness of Ab: Attacks antigens in solution or on cell surfaces.
(Bacteria/viruses that are not inside cells, such as toxins or
Through responses by Original B cell : lymphocytes responsible for Ab mediated immunity, Plasma Cells: Derived from B cells and produce the Ab, and Memory cells: Protect against next exposure to antigen.
Define Cell-Mediated immunity, and what is it most effective against.
Specific defense provided directly by T-lymphocytes (T-cells).
Effective against: Intracellular viruses, bacteria, fungi, transplants, Cancer cells and tumors.
Types of T-cells and their functions
Cytotoxic T-cells: to recruit macrophages to lyse cells
Memory T-cells: Prepare body for the next invasion.
Helper T-cells: Stimulate both B and T cells.
List the 4 types of Adaptive Immunity
Active Natural Immunity: Ab made after natural exposure to antigen. ex: Chicken pox recovery } Own immune system
Active Artificial Immunity: Ab are made after immunization with weakened antigen ex: Vaccine } Own immune system
Passive Natural Immunity: Ab are received from mother in utero or via breast milk. } Ab transplanted into
Passive Artificial Immunity: Ab from donors are injected against the antigen } Ab transplanted into
Antibodies that are formed against ones own antigens. Ex: Rheumatoid Arthritis, MS, Lupus.