Adolescent Nutrition

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  1. The struggle for independence in adolescence can lead to these health-compromising eating behaviors (4)
    excessive dieting, skipping meals, fad diets, supplement use
  2. Adolescence in the period of life between ages
    11- 21
  3. When does puberty occur?
    during early adolescence
  4. What are the four biological changes that happen during puberty
    • sexual maturation 
    • increases in height and weight
    • accumulation of skeletal mass
    • changes in body composition
  5. Sexual maturation (or biological age), not ____ ____, should be used to assess growth and development and individual nutritional needs
    chronological age
  6. Scale of secondary sex characteristics that allows health professionals to assess the degree of pubertal maturation amount adolescents regardless of chronological age
    Sexual maturation rating (SMR) or "tanner stages)
  7. scale for prepubertal growth and devleopment
    SMR 1
  8. scale occurrences of puberty (enlargement of testes, penis, breasts, public and facial hair)
    SMR 2-4
  9. sexual maturation has concluded
    SMR 5
  10. Age of first signs of puberty in females
  11. When does menarche occur?
    2-4 years after initial development of breast buds
  12. early onset of menarche is 4x more likely among girls with ______ and _____
    • overweight 
    • obesity
  13. age of peak velocity of linear growth for females and males
    14.4 years
  14. What age does the linear growth spurt start in females?
    between 9.5-14.5 years
  15. during peak of growth spurt females gain _____ inches per year
    3.5 inches
  16. Age of first signs of puberty in males
    10.5-14.5 years
  17. at peak, males will increase in height by ____ inches per year
  18. Linear growth spots at what age for females and males
    • F: 16
    • M: 21
  19. percentage of body fat required for menarche to occur
  20. percentage of body fat required to maintain normal menstrual cycles
  21. True/False: weight gain slows before menarche  and will gain more early and slow closer to menarche
  22. how much weight is gained during peak growth spurt for females?
    18.3 pounds per year
  23. Peak weight gain for males
    20 pounds per year
  24. In males, body fat decreased to
  25. What are the three interactive levels of influence on adolescent eating behaviors
    • personal/individuals: attitudes, beliefs, food preferences
    • environmental: family, friends, school
    • macrosystem: food availability, advertising
  26. True/False: vegetarians have been found to be shorter and leaner than ominivores during childhood
  27. True/False: vegetarians begin puberty at a later age

    begin menarche 6 months after omnivores
  28. True/False: after puberty, are as tall or taller than omnivores and generally leaner
  29. Vegans have inadequate intakes of (8)
    • protein
    • calcium
    • zinc
    • iron
    • vitamin D
    • vitamin B6
    • vitamin B12
    • long-chain n-3 fatty acids
  30. True/False: many adolescents have diets match the DGA and my plate rx
  31. Diets are low in ____ and high in ____ ___ and ____
    • fiber
    • saturated fat
    • sodium 
    • added sugar
  32. intake of ____ is especially low
  33. US adolescents have inadequate intake of these vitamins and minerals (10)
    • folate
    • vitamin A
    • vitamin B6
    • vitamin C 
    • vitamin E
    • iron 
    • zinc
    • magnesium
    • phosphorus 
    • calcium
  34. what makes up half of the vegetable intake?
    white potatoes
  35. True/False: adolescents have adequate intake of grains
    True, but not WHOLE GRAINS
  36. Nutrient recommendations based on _____ rather than biological development
    chronological age
  37. what are energy needs based on (3):
    • basal metabolic rate (BMR)
    • activity level
    • pubertal growth and development
  38. Level of _____ declines during adolescence (mostly females) resulting in reduced energy requirements
    physical activity
  39. DRI for protein at this age
    0.85 g/kg BW
  40. Low protein intakes are linked to (3)
    • reductions in linear growth
    • delays in sexual maturation
    • reduced LBM
  41. CHO requirement
    130 g/day 


    45-65% of family energy needs (MORE SPECIFIC)
  42. fiber DRI for females:
    26 g/day
  43. Fiber DRI for males <14 years
    31 g/day
  44. fiber DRI older males
    38 g/day
  45. True/False: males and females consume the DRI for fiber
  46. Rx fat intake for males and females:
    • 25-35% of total calories from fat
    • <10% calories from saturated fat
  47. When is calcium absorption highest for females?
    around menarche
  48. When is calcium absorption highest for males?
    during early adolescence
  49. DRI for calcium ages 9-18
    1300 mg/day

    Males consume this, females do not
  50. Three reasons why iron needs are increased
    • rapid rate of linear growth (need more RBCs)
    • increased blood volume 
    • menarche for females
  51. When are iron needs highest for females?
    after menarche
  52. When are iron needs highest for males?
    during growth spurt
  53. Iron in food is in the less available ferric state
    non heme iron
  54. iron in food is in the highly available ferrous state
    heme iron
  55. DRI of folate for ages 9-13 years
    300 mcg/day
  56. DRI of folate for ages 14-18 years
    400 mcg/day
  57. Severe folate deficiency leads to
    megaloblastic anemia
  58. True/False: folic acid added to fortified foods is better absorbed than folate from natural foods
  59. Increased risk of folate deficiency if (2):
    • not consuming orange juice or fortified cereals or breads
    • skipping breakfast
  60. if adolescent is underweight (<5th percentile) look for?
    metabolic or eating disorders
  61. If a child is over weight (85-94%tile) look for?
  62. If obese (>95%tile) recommend
    full medical consult and eval
  63. why should you target parents also in education?
    they are the gate keepers of foods and serve as role models
  64. Teens tend to eat what is _____ and ____
    • convenient
    • available
  65. PA recommendations
    60 mins or more minutes a day of moderate or vigorous activity

    **3 x per week should be vigorous and should include muscle and bone strengthening activities
Card Set:
Adolescent Nutrition
2017-04-19 22:21:35
life cycle

LC exam 3 material
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