Sports Nutrition

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  1. the application of nutrition knowledge for the optimal training, recovery, performance, and health of athletes
    sports nutrition
  2. three basic principles of sports nutrition
    • quantity--how much 
    • quality-- types of foods
    • timing--when and how often
  3. Cunningham equation for RMR
    500 + (22 x FFM kg)

    FFM= fat free mass (calculated using BodPod, BIA, etc)
  4. True/False: LBM and FFM are the same thing

    • LBM is muscle tissue
    • FFM is everything that isn't fat
  5. Energy that gets divided between cellular maintenance, thermoregulation, growth, reproduction, immunity, locomotion
    dietary energy availability
  6. True/False: the same amount of energy goes to each process every day
    FALSE: need to eat enough to fuel processes that lost energy availability to other processes
  7. another name for the female athlete triad
    relative energy deficiency syndrome (REDS)
  8. Energy Availability equation
    Energy Availability= Food energy intake- exercise energy expenditure
  9. Example of shift in energy distribution between body processes
    if running, E will go to locomotion and not other places (immunity, etc) so if you aren't increasing your energy then other processes will shut/slow down to compensate
  10. Energy balance= 0 when
    EA= 30-45 kcal/kg FFM/day
  11. Three forms of carbs in the body
    • liver glycogen 
    • muscle glycogen 
    • free blood (plasma) glucose
  12. Roles of CHO in exercise (4)
    • energy source
    • metabolic primers (keeps metabolism going and helps burn more CHO)
    • preserves LBM
    • fuel for central nervous system and red blood cells
  13. True/False: there are abundant protein reserves in the body
    false, no reserves
  14. Roles of protein (4)
    • synthesis of body tissues
    • primary constituent for plasma membranes 
    • plays a role in acid-base regulation in body fluids
    • can be used as an energy source (generally less than 5% of energy)
  15. Protein needs for endurance athletes
    1.2-1.4 g/kg BW
  16. Protein needs for strength trained athletes
    1.6-1.7 g/kg BW
  17. Protein needs for elite endurance athletes
    1.5-1.7 g/kg BW
  18. Protein needs for calorie restriction and weight loss
    1.8-2.7 g /kg BW
  19. 1 g of glycogen= ____ ATPS

    which equals 100 miles of running
  20. Roles of fat (4)
    • energy reserve
    • protects vital organs
    • provide insulation from the cold
    • transport the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K
  21. four forms of fat in the body
    • adipose tissue
    • plasma FFA
    • intramuscular triglycerols 
    • plasma triglycerides
  22. 1 TG molecule= ____ ATPS
  23. True/False: there is no benefit of <15% total kcal from fat
  24. Fluid recommendations for men
    3.7 L per day
  25. fluid recommendations for women
    2.7 L per day
  26. How does genetics affect fluid requirements
    some people innately sweat more than others
  27. How does body size affect fluid requirements
    larger athletes tend to sweat more than smaller athletes
  28. How does fitness affect fluid requirements
    fitter people sweat earlier and more during exercise
  29. How does environment affect fluid requirements
    sweat losses are higher in hot, humid conditions
  30. How does exercise intensity affect fluid requirements
    sweat losses increase as exercise intensity increases
  31. When people consumed 0.25-0.3 g protein/kg of BW every 2-3 hours then had
    more protein synthesis than breakdown
  32. you want a larger meal that contains CHO and PRO, lower fat, and low "residue" and fluids how many hours before exercise?
    3-5 hours
  33. you want light snack and fluids how many hours before exercise?
    1-2 hours
  34. you want mostly fluids and sports drinks/gels how many hours before exercise?

    won't impact performance as much if <1 hour
  35. True/False: CHO meal prior improved exercise capacity and CHO/electrolyte drink during had an additive effect
  36. True/False: different types of CHO are the same as one single type 

    Ex.) 100 g glucose is the same as 50 g glucose + 50 g fructose

    different types are better than single type
  37. The four Rs of recovery nutrition
    • Rehydrate: with fluid and electrolytes
    • Replenish: muscle glycogen stores with CHO
    • Repair: and regenerate muscle with high quality protein 
    • Reinforce: immune system with nutrias whole foods
  38. When should athletes eat high glycemic index foods
    immediately before, during and after exercise
  39. When should athletes eat low glycemic index foods
    sustained energy so larger meals 3-5 hours away from training
  40. What is the most impactful for protein muscle synthesis
    BCAA-- want a high leucine content
  41. what fats should athletes focus on
    mono and polyunsaturated fats
  42. What are the two safe ergogenic aids
    • CHO
    • Caffeine
  43. Four types of ergogenic aids
    • nutritonal--CHO
    • pharmacologic--performance enhancing drugs
    • physiologic
    • Psychological
  44. How does beetroot juice enhance performance?
    nitrate is converted to nitrate and then nitric oxide which is a vasodilator

    it lowers BP and reduces the amount of oxygen needed during exercise which enhances athletic performance
  45. other dietary sources of nitrates (4)
    • raw spinach
    • cooked collard greens
    • raw leaf lettuce
    • vegetable juice
  46. Theory behind CHO mouth rinsiing
    perform better like you are eating CHO because receptors in the mouth and gut send afferent signals to the brain and brain thinks you are about to eat them when u are just rinsing
  47. the application of genomics in nutrition research and enable an associated to be made between specific nutrients and genetic factors
  48. Can possible answer the question: Why do some people respond to diet/exercise different than others?
  49. ability to study human body on a molecular level and study metabolism, glycogen breakdown, muscle repair, protein metabolism

Card Set Information

Sports Nutrition
2017-04-21 18:43:47
sports nutrition

LC Exam 3 Material
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