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What is a microphone?
A transducer that converts sound waves into a weak electrical signal.
what is a transducer?
A device that converts on form of energy into another.
how does a microphone work?
- weak signal sent to preamplifier
- boosts signal to line level
- sent to a power amp which boosts the signal to a level that will drive a speaker
Extremely thin strip of corrugated metal suspended between the poles of a magnet.
The air pressure of the sound waves vibrates the ribbon and induces an electronic current
The voltage mimics the frequency and intensity of the sound source.
Used for recording and sometimes in the orchestra pit.
The heart contains a magnet surrounded by a wire coil.
One end of the coil is attached to the microphone’s diaphragm.
When sound waves strike the diagram it vibrates which vibrates the coil.
An induced current is generated that mimics the frequency and intensity of the sound wave
Uses: onstage use and recording
Diaphragm of thin conductive materials forms one half of a capacitor.
sound waves strike the diaphragm the pressure changes the space between
the two plates. This causes a change in the capacitance of the
The movement changes the voltage in the plates.
The voltage change mimics the frequency and intensity generated by the source.Requires a power supply
an electrical component consisting of two metal plates separated and
insulated from each other. Used to store an electrical charge
A method of supplying DC power through the microphone cable
visual pattern illustrating the intensity of a microphone’s output relative to the direction the sound arrives
microphone used for Speech and song. Picks up sound from the front and rejects a lot of sound from other directions
microphone that Transmits the audio as a radio or optical signal rather than via a cable
Small wireless mic to be worn on personal clothing, wigs, through the hair, etch
wireless lavalier microphone
microphone that will Pick up sound without by obstructive
Good when you want to hear the feet
How are scored sounds gathered?
Sound effects libraries (CDs and some others)
Online sound effects libraries
Online sources (YouTube)
Sound sources are downloaded into a hard drive
Edited and created through Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) software
Edit multi-track sound effects
Refine (trim, repeat, select)
Effects (reverb, tremble)
Sequence (layers, start)
Laptop: supplement or replacement for sound console is becoming popular. Sound designer can edit on the fly
digital audio workstation
audio playback software
- Playback Cues through the mixer
- Edit Cues for Playback
- Speaker routing
Boosts a low voltage signal received from the mixer to a high voltage signal needed to drive the speaker.
Commonly capable of running at 10 times the average requirements of the speaker
Serve any momently peaks in the average value of the speaker volume
Sized appropriately for the speakers that they are driving.
Too large will overheat
Too small will distort
how speakers work
- Transduces the electrical signal from the amplifiers into sound waves
- The signal activates an electromagnet attached to the loudspeaker frame.
- The electromagnet actives an electrical field that mimics the frequency and intensity sent from the amp and mixer
- The field cause a voice coil attached to the sound cone to vibrate back and forth
- The cone mimics the frequency and intensity of the processed electrical signal.
Horns and power drivers
speaker frequency range
Built in powered amps and signal processing
Out-load signal of mixer must match input level of speaker
Split the signal into different frequencies to the different types of speakers
Why do we need a sound console?
- The technological advances of the late 19th century
- Show control
Prerecorded music and effects
Electric light revolutionizes the presentation and production of theatre
Fully lit stages
Acting is moved from the forestage to behind the proscenium
Audiences have a difficult time hearing
Multiple microphone sources
what is a mixing console
An electronic platform for combining, routing and changing the level, timbre and dynamics of audio signals.
what can a mixing console do?
- Designed to take audio signals
- from a set of inputs
- run it through a refinement process
- send it out to a set of outputs
Boost the weak outputs of microphones and playback devices to a higher level of energy
First electronic circuit the processes signal coming from a mic or playback device
Provides the most gain, easiest place to get distortion and feed back
Often work with an amplifier within the microphone or playback device that gives the engineer more room to play
Filters that control and process the timbre or tone of the sound being sent out to the speakers (Treble, bass and equalizers)
eliminate unwanted sounds and combat feedback
make certain instruments/voices more prominent or enhance particular aspects of an instrument's tone
Controls the amount of input being sent to the master fader
Pre-fade- all the sound mix happens before the final package is sent to the master
Post-fade- mixing happens in between the input fader and post fader
what are the three sections of analog sound board
- Channel Input Strip
- Master Control
- Audio Level Metering
RCA and XLR ports
parts of the input strip
Aux-send (sends the mixed signal to another unit (effects unit) for further enhancement)
provide a lot more options in a screen with routines and subroutines
Write automated or pre-recorded cues
Reconfigure by touching a button
digital sound console
adjusting the pre amps
Sensitive-where the energy is boosted
Left/right control for creating the stereo field
Send to effects processing
Provide different feeds to the onstage performers
allows the engineer to listen to one input
cuts all sound throughout a channel
This allows the engineer to direct the sound to whichever group output he desires.
Group/Bus Assignment Button
types of sound cables
- unbalanced lines
- balanced lines