Psychology 2 Chapter 1
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Define biological psychology.
Study of physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience.
Distinguish among physiological, ontogenetic, evolutionary, and functional explanations of behavior.
- PHYSIOLOGICAL= relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs.
- (Ex: Brain activity controls muscles)
= the development of structure and behavior through genes, nutricion, experiences, and interactions.
- EVOLUTIONARY= behavior evolved in our remote ancestors and we inherit them.
- (Ex: Goosebumps)
- FUNCTIONAL= a structure or behavior that is developed.
- (Ex: defense mechanisms, characteristic traits that give an advantage, seadragon)
What is the mind-body problem?
Relationship between mind and body
What is dualism?
The belief that mind and body are different kinds of substances that exist independently
Who was Rene Descartes?
French philosopher that believed in dualism, believed mind and brain interact at a single point in space, known as pineal gland.
What is monism?
(Opposite of dualism) belief in one substance
[Has 4 subcategories: materialism, mentalism, identity position]
What is materialism?
belief that every thing that exists is material or physical
What is mentalism?
belief that only the mind exists and the physical world would not exist if the mind did not exist
What is the identity position?
belief that mental processes and brain processes are the same thing
What is solipsism?
Philosophical theory that "I alone exist", "I alone am conscious"
What is reciprocal altruism?
Helping individuals who may later be helpful in return.
What are the four reasons why animals are studied by scientists?
- 1) Underlying mechanisms of behavior are similar in other species and sometimes easier to study in animal species.
- 2) Interest in animals for their own sake.
- 3) Animal knowledge benefits human evolution.
- 4) Certain experiments cannot use humans because of legal or ethical reasons.
What is the ethical debate regarding animal research?
animal cruelty vs. the benefit of research and evolution of science
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