Bio lab final

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  1. What is mitosis
    nuclear divisions in which the duplicated chromosomes separate to form two genetically identical daughter nuclei
  2. what is meiosis
    a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
  3. What kind of cells do we produce through mitosis and meiosis
    • mitosis produces diploid cells 
    • meiosis produces haploid cells
  4. which of the two ensures growth and coninuity of an organism
  5. does mitosis or meiosis introduce variation and why
    meiosis, because gametes from each parent combine to create a zygote and with recombination the DNA will be different creating variation
  6. what are the two laws of inheritance
    • 1. principle of segregation- of 4 gametes two have one allele two have another
    • 2. principle of independant assortment,  Genes for different traits assort independently of one another in the formation of gametes.
  7. what is a Gene and allele
    • Gene-A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins
    • Allele- one for more alternative states of a gene
  8. What is a Gynotype and phenotype
    • genotype- genetic constitution underlying a single trait or set of traits
    • phenotype- physical appearance or functional expression of trait
  9. difference between homozygous and heterozygous allele
    • HOMOzygous-two identical alleles of same gene AA
    • HETERozygous- having two different alleles of same gene Aa
  10. Difference between monohybrid and Dihybrid cross
    monohybrid is two Homozygous parents reproducing AA with aa

    dihybrid is A genetic cross between individuals with different alleles for two gene loci of interest
  11. What is the chi square test and why do we use it
    chi square is a mathematical formula that helps to determine the difference in what an expected study was and what was actually taken as data
  12. what is plasmid DNA? where do we find it in nature why is it used
    it is a circular DNA, seperate from chromosomal DNA, typeically found in nature in Bacteria, plasmids are used because they are easy to use, self replicate, and are stable
  13. What are competent cells? and how do we make them and why do we need them
    cells that are able to take up exogenous genetic material.
  14. What is role of CaCL2
    The CaCl2 helps the cells become neutral, because DNA is negatice and Ca ions positive the cells can take up DNA easier
  15. how do we know cells took up the DNA we want
    because there will be colonies on the anitibotic plate knowing that the cells were antibiotic resistant
  16. what is the meaning of the expressions "cloning of a gene" describe protocol of cloning a gene and what we do in each step
    gene cloning is when a gene of interest and sought out extracted from DNA and replicated

    DNA is extracted with desired gene. then is cut up with restriction enzymes. bacterial plasmids are cut up with same restriction enzymes, DNA and plasmids are combined, bacteria is grown on culture dish duplcating desired gene
  17. Steps by which E coli grows
  18. How do we measure growth of bacteria
  19. how do we isolate plasmid from DNA
    you use a centrifuge to seperate the plasmid from DNA
  20. What is electrophoresis
    the movement of charged particles in a fluid or gel under the influence of an electric field.
  21. How many different kinds of electrophoresis do we have
    we have electrophoresis for proteins and DNA
  22. what are restriction enzymes and what do they do
    they are DNA cutting enzymes, and they recognizes one or a few target sequences and cuts DNA at or near those sequences.
  23. how do we use restriction enzymes in molecular biology
    restriction enzymes are used to help identify the specific genes and markers, and then cut up the parts needed that scientist are looking for
  24. relationship between 1ml and 1ul
    • 1ml=1000ul
    • 400ul=.4ml

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rachelle122
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Bio lab final
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2017-05-03 02:58:03
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