music theory 1/2

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Author:
Dragonbrings
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33108
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music theory 1/2
Updated:
2010-09-08 00:43:02
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music theory
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the book essentials of music theory by ralpf turek please know i use these symbols / is a bar line 1 is a whole note 2 is a half note 3 is a dotted half note 4 is a quarter note 5 is a dotted quarter 8 is an eighth note and 6 is a 16th note if two values have a - between them they are slurred (eg 4-8 = 5) to detonate a rest an r is placed before the note (eg r4 would be a quarter note rest)
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  1. what do melodies consist of
    successions of pitches that usually vary in length
  2. define rest
    a duration of silence in a piece of music
  3. define rythem
    the duration and accents of musical sounds
  4. how many quarter notes are in one whole note
    4
  5. how many half notes are in one whole note
    2
  6. how many eighth notes are in one whole note
    16
  7. how many sixteenth notes are in one whole note
    32
  8. how many quarter notes are in a half note
    2
  9. how many eighth notes are in a half note
    8
  10. how many 16th notes are in a half note
    16
  11. how many eighth notes are in a quarter note
    2
  12. how many 16th notes are in a quarter note
    4
  13. define : tie
    a curved line connecting two notes of the same pitch to combine the duration
  14. if one dot is on a note what value does the dot add
    a dot on a note adds half the value of the note to the note eg a dotted half note in 4/4 time recieves 3 beats
  15. if two dots are on a note what value does the note have
    the first dot adds half the value of the note and the second dot adds half the value that the first dot added eg a doubble dotted half note in 4/4 time recieves 3.5 beats
  16. define beat
    the durational unit in music
  17. define tempo
    the speed of the beat
  18. define accent
    the stress or emphasas placed on certin notes
  19. define tonal accent
    a note is stressed because it is noticeably higher than the pitches around it
  20. define agogic accent
    a note is stressed because it is longer than the surronding pitches
  21. define dynamic accent
    a note is stressed because it is played more forcefully than the surronding notes
  22. define meter
    a regular pattern of accents
  23. define measure
    one complete cycle of accents
  24. how are measures seperated from each other
    bar lines
  25. define anacrusis
    a weak beat beginning of a measure
  26. define time/meter signature
    the way of knowing how many beats in a bar and what note gets what beat
  27. define simple meter
    • where the number of beats in a measure is divisible into two parts eg 2/4 3/8 4/2 in 2/4 ^= 1 quarter note
    • eg 2/4 one measure is /^^/ since the simplest way to divide it is in2 parts it is in simple meter
  28. define compound meter
    a meter in which the number of beats in a measure is divisible by a factor of three of the one beat value eg 9/4 a quarter note gets one beat ^= 1 quarter note @= a dotted half note one measure would be as follows /^^^^^^^^/ or /@@@/ the simplest way of wrighting it divides it into 3rds
  29. define asymmetric meter
    the number of beats in a measure is not in a multiple of two or three 5/4
  30. define borrowed division
    when a piece in simple meter has a three part division of notes eg triplets in 4/4
  31. define syncopation
    • the shift in accents to a normlly unaccented beat
    • eg in 3/4 meter an accent is usually on the 1st beat if it is on either of the other too the measure is syncopated also if the + beat of the 1st beat it is syncopated
  32. define cross rythem
    two or more conflicting rythems being played at the same time usually because of borrowed division eg eighth notes and triplets being played together
  33. define hemiola
    a rythemic relationship based on a 3:2 ratio usually occurs when three notes of the same value are played where two notes of the same value normally are eg in 6/4 (3= dotted half note , 2 = half note , 4= quarter note, 8= eighth note) /33/222/ the second bar is hemiola this can be done with alternating rythmic patters also in 3/4 time (the two quarters are tied) /21/18888/
  34. in what meter do you not use double dotted notes
    complex meter also double dots are rare in any piece of music
  35. when can you add a dot to a note
    on any note so long as the note does not exceed the length of a measure or obsucure the beat for too long eg if you have 4/4 time and /554/ the beat does not fall on too many notes consiter rewrighting it as this /58-44/ this lets you see the beat on a note instead of in the middle of one
  36. when should a beam for a note smaller than a quarter note be broken
    when the beats are obscured in a measure because they are all on the same beam eg on p 34
  37. do beams for eighth notes or smaller usually expand through beats
    usually in 4/4 beams do not span between the second and third beats in triple meters (like 3/4) either the 2nd and 3rd or 1st and 2nd can be beamed together eg on p 34
  38. should notes in a beat be connected by beams
    all notes whithin a beat that can be connected by a beam should be
  39. After what number of notes are beams usually broken
    usually after 6 notes beams are broken unless the notes are in one beat
  40. Can rests be tied
    rests are never tied
  41. what is a whole rest indicate
    one complete bar of silance regardless of time signature
  42. define: dynamic
    markings that indicate relative levals of volume know that dynamics are relative to the music and size of ensamble and instrument
  43. define: ppp
    pianississimo or extreamly soft
  44. define: pp
    pianissimo or very soft
  45. define: p
    piano or soft
  46. define: mp
    mezzo piano or moderately soft
  47. define: mf
    mezzo forte or moderately loud
  48. define: f
    forte or loud
  49. define: ff
    fortissimo or very loud
  50. define: fff
    extreamly loud
  51. define: crescendo
    gradually growing louder usually notated with <
  52. define: diminuendo
    gradually growing softer usally notated with >
  53. define: legato
    a smooth connected style which one tone leads to another with litte or no break in sound and without strong attacks
  54. define: staccatto
    ashort detatched style in which a break occurs between pitches notated by dots placed over or under notes
  55. define: accent
    a forcefull attack with immediate loweing of volume
  56. define: marcato
    an accent and staccatto combined a seperated note that has a forcefull attack
  57. if the book is reddaly available go to page 44 and do the excerises part a
  58. if the book is easialy available go to page 45 and do part b
  59. if the the book is easialy available go to page 46 and do part c
  60. if thebook is easialy available go to page 51 and do the comprehension test

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