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what are the 8 components of the respiratory system?
the nose, pharnyx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs with their alveoli, diaphram, and muscles surrounding the ribs
where is respiratory controlled?
in the respiratory control center of the medulla oblongata
respiratory system function
supplies oxygen to the body and eliminates carbon dioxide
what is external respiration
the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood through the alveoli
what is internal respiration
the exchange of gases between the blood and the body cells
what do the passageways between the nasal cavities and alveoli do?
bring gases to and from the lungs
how do the upper passageways help with respiration? how?
they make incoming air warm, moist, and filter it. the cilia lining traps debris and keeps foreign substances out of the lungs
what happens to the diaphragm and lungs during inhalation? exhalation?
the diaphragm contracts to enlarge the thoracic cavity
the diaphragm relaxes so that the lungs can recoil
what is most of the oxygen in blood bound to? what happens when the concentration of oxygen drops in the tissues?
- hemoglobin in RBCs
- oxygen is released from the hemoglobin
where in the blood is carbon dioxide carried? what is most of it converted to?
in solution or bound to blood proteins
most is converted to bicarbonate ions
what converts carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions? where?
carbonic anhydrase in red blood cells
why is carbon dioxide a regulator of blood PH?
because the rxn that turns carbon dioxide into bicarbonate ions releases hydrogen ions
what are the 8 components of the alimentary canal/digestive tube?
the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus
what are the 3 accessory organs of digestion?
liver, pancreas, and gall bladder
describe the digestion process that happens at the ingestion of the mouth
when food is ingested it is mechanically broken down by the teeth and tongue (mastication). There are 3 pairs of salivary glands that produce saliva, which lubricates and dilutes the chewed food.
what is the function of saliva? what forms?
- it begins the breakdown (digestion) of complex carbohydrates using an enzyme called amylase.
- it forms a ball of food (bolus)
how does food get from the mouth to the stomach?
constrictive muscles of the pharynx force the food into the esophagus and down to the stomach
this is swallowing
what are the 4 main layers of the digestive tract?
outer to inner
- serous layer
- muscular layer
- submucous layer
- mucous membrane
describe the digestion process that happens once food gets to the stomach
when food gets to the stomach gastric glands produce hydrochloric acid to break down foods. the stomach muscles churn and mix the bolus of food, turning them into chyme.
aside from making chyme, what is another function of the stomach
stores food and regulates the movement of food into the small intestines
function of the small intestines
digestion and absorption of food
how is food digested in the small intestine? and how is it neutralized from the stomach?
enzymes from the small intestine and bile from the liver further break down the food. Water also comes from the pancreas to dilute the chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach.
what are the 3 major regions of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
how are nutrients in the small intestine absorbed? what nutrients go where?
they are absorbed through the intestine walls
- -amino acids and simple sugars from proteins are carbohydrates are directly absorbed into the blood
- -fats are mainly absorbed into the lacteals, then go to the blood stream
what are lacteals?
the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine that absorb digested fats.
how do nutrients travel from the small intestine to the liver?
after absorption into the blood through the small intestine walls, they travel to the liver by way of the hepatic portal vein
what is the function of the liver?
to decontaminate chemicals/nutrients and metabolize drugs
purpose of villi on the intestinal wall
create surface area
function of the large intestine
reabsorbs water and stores and eliminates undigested food
what kind of important bacteria are found in the large intestines
what are the 5 portions of the large intestine?
the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the rectum
what is the opening of defecation?
what 6 components make up the urinary system?
two kidneys, 2 ureters, a urinary bladder, and the urethra
function of the kidneys
filter the blood
function of the ureters
stores urine before urination and transport urine to the bladder
what are the functional units of the kidneys? describe them
-they are small coiled tubes that filter waste out of the blood that is brought to the kidney by the renal artery
where in the nephron does the filtration process actually happen? how?
in the glomerulus in the Bowman's capsule of the nephron
it happens under the force of blood pressure
what process happens when the glomerular filtrate passes through the nephron
components needed by the body (water, glucose, and ions) leave the nephron by diffusion and reenter the blood.
the water is reabsorbed by the nephron tubules
what is the final product of the filtrate that has completely passed through the nephron in the kidney
what are the 2 functions of the ovaries and testes
production of gametes (sex cells) and production of hormones
what kind of hormones control the ovaries and testes? from where? how are male and female reproductive cycles different?
tropic hormones from the pituitary glands
male cycles are continuous, female cycles are cyclic
where in the testes are spermatozoa developed?
in the seminiferous tubules
where in the testes is testosterone produced?
in the interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules
what is the function of testosterone
it influences sperm cell development and produces the secondary sex characteristics such as increased facial hair, body hair, and voice deepening
after sperm are produced, where are they stored?
in the epididymis of each testes
what is the pathway of ejaculation?
vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra
what male reproductive glands produce semen (3)
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral (cowper's) glands
what controls testicular activity?
two anterior pituitary hormones
- FSH- regulates sperm production
- ICSH (interstitial cell stimulating hormone) or LH- stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone
what hormone influences eggs to ripen in the reproductive system?
FSH from the anterior pituitary
where in the female reproductive system do eggs ripen
in the ovarian follicles of the ovary
where is estrogen produced? function?
the ovarian follicles produce estrogen
initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy
what day of the cycle does ovulation begin approx? how? what happens during ovulation?
at day 14 LH is released from the pituitary, which stimulates ovulation and the conversion of the follicle (holding the now mature egg) corpus luteum
what is the function of corpus luteum
secretes the hormone progesterone and estrogen, which further stimulate the development of the endometrium
what happens to the corpus luteum if fertilization occurs? if it doesn't?
does- the corpus luteum remains functional
doesn't- the corpus luteum degenerates and menstruation begins
what happens to the egg when ovulation is completed?
if there was fertilization in the corpus luteum, the egg is swept into the oviduct, travels to the uterus, and implants itself into its endometrium
if no fertilization happened, then the egg is moved into the Fallopian tubes
where is placenta created? how?
in the uterus
formed by maternal and embryonic tissues
function of the placenta
the placenta nourishes the embryo, produces hormones during pregnancy to maintain the endometrium, and prepares the mammary glands for breast milk production