Woodworking measures.txt

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rhondiggity
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33126
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Woodworking measures.txt
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2010-09-07 00:12:59
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  1. Woodworking measures
    • Framing Square
    • Tri-square
    • Combination Square
    • Bevel Gauge
    • Marking Gauge (measuring gauge)
    • 12'' steel tape
    • 50'' steel tape
    • Chalk Line (aka snap line)
    • Spline
    • Trammel Points
    • Spirit Level
  2. Framing Square
    • Calibrated
    • Establishes right angle for framing and marking the angle cut of stair and carriage
  3. Tri-square
    • Marking guide for 900 angle cuts
    • Calibrated
  4. Combination Square
    • Has adjustable sliding bar for measuring and establishing marking guide for 900 and 450 angles
    • Calibrated
  5. Bevel Gauge
    • Transfers or saves predetermined angle of bevel
    • Also exists a 'protractor' with reading on side
  6. Marking Gauge (measuring gauge)
    Calibrated for marking a rip cut of given width
  7. 12'' steel tape
    • For measuring short lengths
    • Has wiggle end to account for thickness
  8. 50''steel tape
    • For measuring long lengths
    • Has wiggle end to account for thickness
  9. Folding ruler
    Folding ruler
  10. Speed Square
    Used for right angle and 45o
  11. Chalk Line (snap line)
    • Snapping a long, straight line to be used as a framing guide
    • Reference line for full-scale layout
    • Painting guide
  12. Spline
    Mechanical device for drawing irregular curves and plotting curved edges in full-scale layout.
  13. Trammel Line
    Mechanical device for marking the radius of a circle or an arc; the bar (if calibrated, used to measure) holds the trammel points
  14. Spirit Level
    Instrument designed to establish true vertical or horizontal
  15. Flat head pinch bar
  16. Large pinch bar
  17. Hand-Powered Saws
    • Crosscut saw
    • Rip Saw
    • Keyhole Saw
    • Coping Saw
    • Japanese Dozuki Saw
  18. Set
    • The degree of bend every other tooth has away from the saw blade
    • Keeps the saw from binding with wood because the width of the cut is wider than the blade
  19. Crosscut Saw
    • Used to cut across the grain of wood
    • Teeth sharp and straight to cut across grain
  20. Rip Saw
    • Hand saw used to cut along the grain
    • Teeth are angled and flat-edged like a chisel, as opposed to a crosscut saw
  21. Keyhole Saw
    • Used to cut irregular lines
    • For heavy, coarse work
    • Has high tooth count
  22. Coping Saw
    • For irregular cuts
    • High tooth count for a smoothly cut edge
    • Removable blade makes it good for inside cuts
  23. Japanese Dozuki Saw
    Stiff blade with a back for accurate cuts such as miters
  24. Miter
    Any cut across the grain of the wood
  25. Bevel
    Any cut in the same direction as the grain of the wood
  26. Scroll Work
    Curved, detailed design resembling a rolled piece of paper
  27. What determines the specific work a saw can do?
    • The shape of the tooth (pointed or chisel)
    • The set of the tooth (flare of every other tooth in the opposite direction)
    • The tooth count (number of teeth per inch)
  28. Handheld Power Saw
    • Circular Saw
    • Saber Saw
    • Cut-awl
  29. Circular Saw
    • Used as rip or crosscut saw
    • Lightweight and small blade make it portable
    • Depth of cut is limited
  30. Saber Saw
    • Used to cut irregular lines, as in scrollwork
    • Portable
    • Does not limit the size of the work
    • Versatile tool for scroll cutting at any stage of assembly
  31. Cut-saw
    • Designed for light, detailed cutting
    • Requires padded bench or table
  32. Fixed Power Saws
    • Radial Arm Saw (pullover saw)
    • Table Saw
    • Band Saw
    • Panel Saw
    • Jigsaw
    • Compound Miter Saw
  33. Radial Arm Saw (pullover saw)
    • Has pullover action for accurate crosscuts, limited miters
    • Mounted on long table to hold wood
  34. Table Saw
    • For easy and accurate rip cuts
    • Heavy enough for precision work in quantity
  35. Band Saw
    For scroll work, but limited to outside cutting and to work no larger than the depth of its throat (20'' throat should serve average shop)
  36. Panel Saw
    For cutting large panels such as cover stock (i.e. plywood)
  37. Jigsaw
    For scroll work, but limited to outside cutting and to work no larger than the depth of its throat
  38. Compound Miter Saw
    • Specialized tool for cutting wood that changes plane as well as angle (such as a corner of an angled roof)
    • The blade must be tilted and angled
  39. Dado
    Notch cut into a board, allowing a second piece to fit into it
  40. Rabbet
    Wide groove cut into the face of a board allowing another board to fit into it
  41. Tenon
    A projecting member in a piece of wood or other material for insertion into a mortise to make a joint
  42. Hand-Paring Tools
    • Chisel
    • Surform
    • Smoothing Plane
    • Block Plane
    • Rasp
    • Drawknife
  43. Chisel
    • Simplest hand tool for shaping
    • Excellent for cleaning up dado, rabbet, and routed areas
    • Make sure to keep sharp!
  44. Cold Chisel
    Good for chiseling metal
  45. Star Chisel
    Used on rock or cement
  46. Surform
    • Designed to work across the grain
    • Replaceable blade
    • Faster than block plane but leaves rough finish
  47. Smoothing Plane
    Pares a surface to accurate dimensions with the grain of the wood
  48. Block Plane
    • Smoothes or shapes end of a board
    • Can be used to correct a bad cut or to shorten board for delicate fit
  49. Rasp
    • Designed to work across the grain
    • Rough finish
  50. Drawknife
    For shaping large, wide surfaces
  51. Handheld Power Shaping Tools
    • Router
    • Disk Sander
    • Biscuit Joiner
  52. Router
    • Versatile tool with many differently shaped bits
    • Can be used on wide variety of jobs, including dado, rabbet, flush cuts, and tenons
  53. Disk
    • Best for smoothing end cuts
    • Can reshape or round a cut with coarse sandpaper
    • Less effective with flat surface because It leaves sanding marks
  54. Biscuit Joiner
    • Used to attach two boards with almond-shaped crescents
    • Joiner cuts series of half-biscuit-shaped grooves into which biscuit is glued
    • Used to ease the process of attaching wood
    • Moisture in glue causes the biscuit to swell, tightening the joint
  55. Fixed Power Shaping Tools
    • Belt and Disk Sander
    • Lathe
    • Bench Grinder
    • Shaper
    • Jointer
  56. Belt and Disk Sander
    • Removes great deal of wood quickly but leaves rough surface
    • Often first tool used in sanding process
  57. Lathe
    • Used to turn or shape cylinders
    • Shaped with chisel that can be moved along work
    • For spindles, stair railings, and so on
  58. Bench Grinder
    • Used to remove wood and smooth small pieces
    • More often used to grind down rough edge of metal or sharpen tools
    • Has one fine and one coarse wheel
  59. Jointer
    Smoothes or sizes a board by changing the depth of cut, beveling the edge, or cutting rabbet on one side of the board
  60. Shaper
    Uses different combinations of blades to cut variety of moldings
  61. Pegging
    Method of attaching two pieces of wood by inserting a small wooden dowel (peg) into a hole drilled into both pieces of wood
  62. (Random) Orbital Sander
    • Used to finish smoothing (i.e. stained table top)
    • Uses half sheet f regular 9 by 11 inch sandpaper.
    • Has a round base that orbits as the disk spins, providing the advantage of faster sanding and reducing swirl marks
  63. Power Plane
    Same job as a handheld smoothing plane, but faster and more efficiently
  64. Boring Tools
    Tools with a cutting edge that revolves about a central axis to cut a circular hole
  65. What influences choice of bits for a boring tool?
    • The size and depth of the hole
    • The kind of hole (clean core, taper, ream)
    • The nature of the material (hardness, thickness)
  66. Wood-Boring Tools
    • Auger bit
    • Twist drill bit
    • Speed bit/ Power bit
    • Countersink bit--wood
    • Countersink bit--metal
    • Woodscrew tap and countersink
    • Hole saw
    • Forstner bit
    • Hole cutter
    • Extension bit
    • Hand power drill
    • Cordless drill
    • Drill press
  67. Auger bit
    • When rotated, pulls the cutting edges of the bit into contact with the wood
    • No need for high speed
    • Bits are manufactured in increments of 1/16'' (1/2'' auger is No. 8 bit)
  68. Twist drill bit
    Depends on speed or rotation and pressure to advance
  69. Masonry
    • Working with rock or cement, etc...
    • Masonry Bits
    • Special bits of hardened steel used for drilling into concrete--they look like twist drill bits
  70. Speed bit/ Power bit
    • For woodcutting; high rotation provides accuracy
    • Chisel-like edges of bit
    • Paddle varies in size from 3/8'' to 1 3/4''
  71. Countersink bit--wood
    • Used after hole is drilled
    • Enlarges top of opening with bevel cut deep enough to set a flathead screw or bolt flush with outer surface of work
    • Note that for Plexiglas it is better to drill the countersink first in order to lessen the chance of splitting
  72. Countersink bit--metal
    Same as the countersink--wood but used for metal
  73. Woodscrew tap and countersink
    Drills hole and countersinks simultaneously
  74. Hole saw
    • Used to cut oversized holes (1 1/2'' and wider) at high speed
    • Depth is limited to size of shank
  75. Extension shank
    Lengthens the depth of cut of speed/ power bit by extending the shank
  76. Expansion bit
    • Type of auger bit
    • Adjustable to cut hole 1 1/4''--2 1/2'' in diameter
  77. Hand power drill
    Includes multiple bits for multiple purposes
  78. Cordless drill
    • Cordless version of power drill
    • Workhorse of the shop
  79. Drill press
    • Stationary power drill, used to control depth of bore
    • Shank speed can vary for precision work
  80. Workshop Safety when working with power tools
    • 1. Dress appropriately
    • 2. Always use the guard rails or fences on power tools
    • 3. Get appropriate training on the proper use of every power tool
    • 4. Keep all blades and drills sharp to prevent chances of the wood kicking back
    • 5. When using the sander, be aware of the dust hazard--wear a mask!
    • 6. Make sure the space under work is clear
    • 7. Always return tool settings to a the standard setting when finished
    • 8. Ask for help whenever ripping a long board and use a push stick to keep hands safe
    • 9. When using a power tool, concentrate on what you are doing and pay attention to where your hands are
    • 10. When done, clean up and put all tools away
    • 11. Follow the work procedure of the shop
    • 12. Use the appropriate tool for each job
  81. Wood Construction Tools
    • Claw Hammer
    • Straight Claw Hammer (ripper)
    • Mallet
    • Tack Hammer
    • Ball-peen hammer
    • Screwdriver (straight blade)
    • Phillips head screwdriver
    • Nutdriver
    • Socket Wrench
    • Wonder bar (pry bar)
    • Nail Puller
    • Crowbar
    • Grommet set die
    • Staple Gun
    • Staple Hammer
    • Crescent Wrench (adjustable wrench)
    • Sheep nose (utility pliers)
    • Vise grips (locking pliers)
    • Channel (lock) pliers
    • Needle nose Pliers
    • Lineman Pliers
    • C-clamp
    • Spring Clamp
    • Band clamp
    • Jorgensen Clamp
    • Pipe Clamp
    • Bar Clamp
  82. Claw Hammer
    • Used to drive nails
    • Rounded claw end used to pull out misdirected nails (10 or 16ounce)
  83. Straight Claw Hammer (ripper)
    Straight claw used to pry apart joined members
  84. Mallet
    • Wooden, rubber or plastic head used to tap member into place without damaging edge or surface of wood
    • Also used with chisel
  85. Tack Hammer
    • Used primarily for upholstery
    • Has magnetic head
  86. Ball-peen Hammer
    Used for working metal
  87. Screwdriver (straight blade)
    Slotted hear, used to drive in screws
  88. Phillips head screwdriver
    "+" Head used to drive in screws
  89. Nutdriver
    • Hex-head or Robertson or square hear
    • Driver does not slip and destroy screw heads
  90. Socket Wrench
    • Ratchet action and interchangeable wrench heads
    • Efficient for tightening and loosening nuts
  91. Open-end wrench
    • Always get the right sized wrench
    • Both ends open
  92. Boxed end wrench
    Has one end closed, the other open
  93. Wonder Bar (pry bar)
    Long handle provides excellent leverage
  94. Nail puller
    • Used to pull out nails
    • Same leverage as wonder bar
  95. Crowbar
    • Also used to pull out nails and to pry apart two joined members
    • Same leverage as wonder bar
  96. Grommet Set Die
    Used to cut holes and set grommets into fabric, such as a drop
  97. Spring Driven Staple Gun
    Drives staples when trigger is pulled
  98. Staple Hammer
    Drives staple when hammer-like action is provided
  99. Crescent wrench (adjustable wrench)
    Has adjustable jaws to fit sides of nut and apply even pressure
  100. Sheep Nose Pliers
    • Gripping tool with wide range of uses
    • Adjustable to two sizes
  101. Vise grips (locking grips)
    Allows carpenter to clamp down work and then let go
  102. Channel (lock) pliers
    Similar to slip-joint pliers but adjusts to larger sizes
  103. Needle nose pliers
    Used for more delicate work or when work area is small
  104. Lineman's pliers (dykes)
    • Often used by electricians
    • Has a large, fat nose used for pulling wires
    • Usually has blade to cut wire
  105. C-clamp
    Holds boards face-to-face, allowing glue to dry while work is in place
  106. Spring clamps
    • Heavy-duty and with strong jaws
    • Extra strong spring action holds the work while plastic coating protects wood
    • Easy on, easy off clamp
  107. Band Clamp
    Woven strap with ratcheting apparatus to tighten banc around irregular or curved surface
  108. Jorgensen Clamp
    • Aka Hand-screwed clamp
    • Similar use as c-clamp, but wood of clamp does less damage to work
    • Best in face-to-face joints
  109. Pipe clamp
    • Adjustable jaws can be attached to any length of standard pipe
    • Has more flexibility than standard bar clamp
  110. Bar Clamp
    Designed to hold boards edge to edge
  111. Pneumatic Tools
    • Tools driven by air pressure to save time and energy
    • Pneumatic nailer for structural nails
    • Pneumatic stapler for 3/8'' to 2'' staples
  112. Scribe
    • Used for marking on metal
    • Sharp point scratches line on surface
  113. Wood Scribe
    Two points to etch in wood circles
  114. China marker (grease pencil)
    Makes marks on metal or any other hard surface
  115. Compass
    Used for marking circles and arcs on metal
  116. Inside Caliper
    Used to measure and transfer interior dimensions
  117. Digital Calipers
    • Highly accurate
    • Can be metric or English measure
  118. Centering punch
    Marks center of circle and provides a start hole for drilling in metal
  119. Nail set
    Used to hammer last inch of nail into wood to not dent wood with hammer
  120. Metal straightedge
    Calibrated for measurements as well as for drawing a straight line
  121. Anvil
    Old-fashioned but still extremely useful tool for shaping metal on both curved and flat sides
  122. Machinist's vise
    Steel jaws hold metal for filing or for bending strap iron
  123. Blacksmith's hammer
    For shaping metal by hammering over surface of anvil
  124. Ball-peen hammer
    For shaping metal over anvil
  125. Files
    • Triangular file
    • Bastard file
    • Rasp file
    • Can be flat, round, or triangular and can smooth a rough cut or round edge of metal
  126. Rat tail file
    Round file
  127. Bastard file
    Wide flat file
  128. Triangular file
    • File for metal and wood
    • Slight triangular shape to it
  129. Wood wrath
    Large gauge, flat one side, ? moon the other side
  130. Mat knife
    Keep blade sharp
  131. Dye in a dye
    Used to make threads on a screw or around something
  132. Tap
    Used to make threads inside something
  133. Sheet-metal roll
    Sheet metal fed between three adjustable rollers to determine degree of curve
  134. Light-weight break
    Hand or foot operated to cleanly bend sheet to prescribed angle
  135. Hossfeld bender
    Used to bend many shapes of metal (pipe, tube, rod, bar, and angle)
  136. Pipe-Cutting, Threading, and Bending Tools
    • Pipe Cutter
    • Pipe Threader and Die Heads
    • Pipe Vise
    • Stillson wrench (Plumber's wrench)
    • Pipe Blender
  137. Pipe Cutter
    • Used to cut lengths of pipe to specific dimensions
    • Cutter rotates around pipe for a clean cut
  138. Pipe threader and die heads
    • Used to thread pipe
    • Various dies for different sizes of pipe
  139. Pipe Vise
    Holds pipe to allow for cutting or threading
  140. Stillson Wrench (Pipe Wrench)
    • Used to grab and hold pipe for work purposes
    • Grips in one direction
    • Rounded head
  141. Monkey Wrench
    Has square head, heavy
  142. T-wrench
    Also called a coffin lock because that was its purpose
  143. Pipe Bender
    Used to create curves in a pipe
  144. Metal Cutting Tools
    • Hacksaw
    • Metal Cutting Blade in Scroll Saw
    • Porta-band
    • Reciprocating saw (Sawzall)
    • Bolt Cutters
    • Tin Shears
    • End-cutting Nipper
    • Side Cutter
    • Annuar Cutter
    • Cutting disk
    • Power Nible
    • Power Shears
    • Abrasive Wheel Cutoff Saw
    • Oxyfuel Cutting Torch
    • Horizontal Band Saw
    • Cold Saw
    • Plasma Cutter
  145. Hacksaw
    • Used to cut into metal bolts or bars
    • Has fine-toothed blade
  146. Metal Cutting Blade in Scroll Bar
    • Used for small curves
    • Removable blade allows for interior cuts
  147. Porta-band
    Handheld unit used in situations where lack of space doesn't allow any other power saw
  148. Reciprocating Saw (Sawzall)
    Handheld saw that makes rough cuts
  149. Bolt Cutters (aka master key)
    Used for rough cutting of rod or strip stock
  150. Swedish key
    Cable cutters (do not use on bolts)
  151. Nicopress
    • Can adjust jaws
    • Used to put on swags on cables and large rope
  152. Thimble
    Hoop thing at end of cable or rope to make it last and stronger
  153. Tin Shears
    Used for cutting sheet metal
  154. End-cutting nipper
    Used most commonly for pulling staples and small nails
  155. Side Cutters
    • Wire cutter
    • Also good tool for removing plastic components from sprues (the passages through which metal is poured into a mold) or trimming tabs and vents from metal figures
  156. Annular Cutter
    • Used for cutting accurate holes in thick material
    • Note hallow center
  157. Cutting disk
    Similar use to grinding wheel but much thinner disk (1/16'')
  158. Power Nible
    Used for inside cutting of metal
  159. Power Shears
    Handheld power saw for cutting straight or curved line
  160. Abrasive Wheel Cutoff Saw
    Used for crosscutting pipe, tube, or any structural steel form
  161. Oxyfuel Cutting Torch
    For rough cuts, but useful when cutting work can't be brought to the tool
  162. Horizontal Band Saw
    • Used for crosscutting pipe, tube r any structural steel form
    • More effective than abrasive cutoff saw for longer lengths of metal
  163. Cold Saw
    • Stationary saw with an extremely hard blade, low rotational speed, and fluid coolant/ lubricant
    • Used for extremely accurate miter cuts (including 90o)
  164. Plasma Cutter
    • Used to cut all sizes of metal
    • Similar to arc welder
    • With jet of air, it melts the metal and blows the resulting puddle through the work
  165. Metal Joining Tools
    • Sheet metal screws (TEK screws)
    • Blind riveter (pop riveter)
    • Rivet nut setter
    • Rivets
    • Soldering iron
    • Soldering gun
    • Propane torch
  166. Sheet metal screws (TEK screws)
    • Used to join two metal pieces
    • Some are self-threading
  167. Blind riveter (Pop riveter)
    • Used when back of work is inaccessible
    • This tool compresses the rivet with a squeeze or two of the handle
  168. Rivet nut setter
    • Rivet is inserted from back through hole drilled through both pieces, with washer placed over shaft of rivet
    • Shaft is preened or flattened by pressing handle
  169. Rivets
    Metal bolt or pin having a head on one end, inserted through aligned holes in the pieces to be joined and then hammered on the plain end so as to form a second head
  170. Soldering iron
    • Rod-shaped metal implement with a pointed or wedge-shaped tip
    • Provides sufficient heat at the tip to melt the soldering along the joint of delicate work
  171. Soldering gun
    Same as soldering iron, but useful for larger pieces
  172. Propane torch
    • Supplies heat to large area of fitting
    • When solder is applied, it is sucked into the joint
  173. Gas Welding Equipment
    • Oxygen and acetylene tanks
    • Regulators
    • Welding/ brazing torch
    • Rosebud tip
    • Flint striker
    • Welding gloves
    • Tank wrench
    • Goggles
  174. Oxygen and acetylene tanks
    • Fuel tanks
    • Shown on tank truck with chain to keep them upright and for ease with moving
  175. Regulators
    Oxygen and acetylene regulators control the gas flow
  176. Welding/ brazing torch
    Guides the gas flow exactly to the work
  177. Rosebud tip
    Used for heating and bending
  178. Flint striker
    Creates a spark to start torch
  179. Tank wrench
    Used to open and close valves on the gas tanks
  180. Stick Welding Equipment
    • Stick welder
    • Welding rod
    • Helmet
    • Chipping hammer
  181. Stick welder
    Common term for shielded metal arc welding (SMAW)
  182. Welding Rod
    • Actually electrodes
    • Rods are numbered in reference to material of electrode and tensile strength
  183. Chipping hammer
    Used to chip off slag, the residue left after the metal work cools
  184. Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment
    • TIG welder
    • Hand control
    • Foot pedal
    • MIG welder
    • Spool gun
    • Ground clamp
    • Torch
    • Gas flow meter
  185. TIG welder
    GTAW (gas-tungsten arc welding)
  186. Hand control
    Used to control amperage
  187. Foot pedal
    Used to control amperage when both hands are needed elsewhere
  188. MIG welder
    Metal inert gas welding
  189. Spool gun
    Feeds the wire electrode
  190. Ground clamp
    Allows work to be grounded
  191. Torch
    • Portable apparatus that produces a very hot flame by the combustion of gases
    • Used in welding and construction
  192. Gas flow meter
    Provides the rate of the shielding gas being delivered to the MIG welding nozzle
  193. What is the most commonly used metal and why?
    Mild Steel, because it is easily cut, drilled and welded, it is the least expensive and most readily available metal
  194. Ductility
    Ease with which something bends
  195. Three Types of Metal Used
    • Mild Steel
    • Aluminum
    • Stainless Steel
  196. Ways Metal can be formed
    • Rolling--produce plate and sheet metal
    • Extruding--squeezing molten metal through a shaped aperture to form a shape such as a rod or tube
    • Casting--make liquid metal into block forms
    • Drawing--putting metal through a small aperture to make wire
    • Forging--stamping the metal into a prescribed shape
  197. 9 shapes of metal from forming
    • Plate--rolled steel no thinner than 1/8 inch
    • Sheet--rolled steel no thicker than 1/8in
    • Strip--rolled steel narrower than plate
    • Strap--narrow strip
    • Rod--solid round, square, and polygonal shapes
    • Structural--shapes such as channel, angle and I-beam
    • Tube--extruded round, square, and rectangular
    • Pipe--round malleable iron
    • Wire--drawn carbon steel, aluminum, or copper
  198. Brake Forming
    The folding of plate or sheet metal
  199. Shearing
    Cutting sheet metal in scissors-like tools
  200. Spinning
    Placing sheet metal into a late like machine and rotating it while a blunt tool shapes the metal into bowl or bell shapes
  201. Rolling
    Cold rolling sheet metal between large hardened steel cylinders into curved or cylindrical shapes
  202. Twisting
    Twisting a square bar into a decorative shape or a wire into cable
  203. Punching
    Making holes or a pattern through plate or sheet metal
  204. Welding
    Joining metal to metal by fusing them together at a high temperature
  205. Brazing (or braze welding)
    Joining metals at a lower temperature whereby only the filler metal (usually a brass alloy) is made molten
  206. Soldering
    Joining sheet metal, tubing, or electrical parts with solder (usually a tin or lead alloy)
  207. Strap
    Very thin strap is commonly used as a sill-iron
  208. Sill-iron
    Horizontal strip holding the bottom of a doorframe in position
  209. Strip
    Wide strap. Thick strip is sometimes cut and drilled for mending plates
  210. Angles
    A good reinforcing shape for stiffening or bracing scenery, this useful cross section comes in many sizes. It is often used in stage machinery construction.
  211. Channel
    Its U-shaped cross section makes it stronger though not as adaptable as an angle
  212. Tee
    • Useful for stiffening
    • When it is used horizontally in a framework, it is stronger than angle. The tee also serves as a guide for the arbor in a counterweight system
  213. I-beam
    Best used as a beam where the top of the I carries the main thrust or weight
  214. Rod
    A round solid, sometimes used as the internal member of a steel truss or is easily bent into decorative shapes for scenery or props
  215. Bar
    A square solid, sometimes used as a spindle in a metal railing; bars can be bent and twisted into ornamental shapes found in wrought iron work
  216. Rectangular Tube
    This offers a good clean shape for design and structural uses such as the frame of a flat that is covered with scrim or any sheer fabric
  217. Round Tube
    • This is one of the many extruded forms of steel
    • The larger tubes can become vertical support members, whereas smaller diameter tubes can be bent into decorative shapes
  218. Square tubes
    • This popular shape can be cut and welded into structural or decorative forms
    • It is the most commonly used shape overall
  219. Pipe
    • With heavier side walls than tube has, malleable iron pipe can be threaded and joined with fittings
    • Although the outside dimension (OD) remains the same, pipe is available in a variety of side-wall thickness
  220. Unistrut
    • A specially formed channel-shaped steel
    • Is used to create knockdown framing that is adaptable to platforming and trussing in the theatre
    • It reduces the necessity of welding and cutting and is available in different forms
  221. Thin-wall Conduit (EMT)
    • A type of galvanized-steel pipe
    • Has become a very popular structural and decorative material in the theatre
    • With walls too thin to thread but quite easy to bend, it has many uses in scenery construction
  222. Telspar
    • Telescoping square tubes comes in three varieties
    • * With solid sides
    • * Punched with round holes
    • * Punched with square holes
  223. Slotted Angle Iron
    Designed to bolt together in a variety of ways, is also made in strap and channel shapes
  224. Upholster foot
    Good for removing nails
  225. Awl
    Used for puncturing wood or leather

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