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Identify the seven theories of management.
- Scientific management theory
- Human relations theory
- Hygiene theory
- Theory X/Y
- Management by objectives
- Leadership continuum
- Total quality management
What is the scientific theory?
(Frederick Winslow Taylor) workers are lazy, motivated by rewards, workers need constant supervision and avoid work. Assembly line and SOPs were created
What is the human relations theory?
(Elton Mayo) happy worker = productive worker so scheduled breaks and illumination of the worksite, production increased because workers saw the changes as management caring about their welfare
What is the hygiene theory?
(Frederick Herzberg) satisfaction comes from feeling what they do is important and an opportunity for achievement. Increases in pay, time off, and benefits (hygiene factors) are only short-term solutions to productivity.
What is the Theory X/Y?
(McGregor) Company officers switch from one theory to the other as the situation dictates. Theory X relates to fire ground work, while Theory Y relates to day-to-day activities. X=lazy, dislike work. Y=does not dislike work, perform without coercion, seek responsibility.
What is the management by objective theory?
(Peter Druker) Showing workers the importance of their small individual goals and how they fit into the overall goal. Critics say the theory produces minimum performance and divided motivations. MBO is extensively used in the fire service for emergency incidents.
What is the leadership continuum?
(Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt) a diagram showing the variety of leader/subordinate relationships that can be used when trying to balance control against the subordinates' need for autonomy. Leaders are highly motivated. Some subordinates have a strong need for autonomy, some do not, therefore delegation of authority decisions should be based on these needs. Emergency situations, where the cost of making a mistake is high, do not lend themselves to democratic style of leadership. On the fire ground leaders may use the "TELL" side of the continuum, in non-emergency situations the "SELL" or "CONSULT" part of the continuum, and whenever possible, company officers should "JOIN" their subordinates in planning tasks
What is the total quality management theory?
customer identification and feedback, tracking performance, constant and continuous improvement, employee participation in the process
Identify the four elements/functions of management.
What is the planning element/function of management?
setting goals and objectives and determining the direction the organization or unit will take to achieve those results; it is both the broadest view of the organization (creation of the mission statement) and the narrowest (development of tactical plans for accomplishing a specific objective).
What is the organizing element/function of management?
coordinating tasks and resources to accomplish the unit’s goals and objectives; accomplished by establishing the internal structure of the unit or organization that creates division of labor, coordinating the allocation of resources, and taking responsibility for tasks and flow of information within the department. Organizing includes staffing, which is the filling of positions with qualified people
What is the implementation element/function of management?
influencing, inspiring, and motivating employees to achieve the goals and objectives; also referred to as directing in some business definitions. Leading is a proactive approach to managing.
What is the evaluation element/function of management?
establishing and implementing the mechanisms to ensure that objectives are attained; includes setting performance standards, measuring and reporting the actual performance, comparing the performance standard with the actual performance, and taking preventative or corrective action to close the gap between the two levels of performance
Identify the elements of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
- Physiological (Survival)
- Love/Belonging (Affiliation)
Describe how the physiological element affect motivation.
Basic needs for survival. Breathing, water, sleep, sex homeostasis, excretion.
Describe how the safety element affect motivation.
protect people from things that might threaten survival. Security of body, employment, of resources, of morality, of family, of property.
Describe how the affiliation element affect motivation.
Belonging to a group and social activity. Friendship, family, sexual intimacy.
Describe how the esteem element affect motivation.
Strive to meet their needs for self-esteem and status. Confidence, achievement, respect of others, respect by others.
Describe how the self-actualization element affect motivation.
Doing what they were meant to do. Morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts.
Identify the three different leadership styles.
Describe the autocratic leadership style.
Invests all power and authority in the leader.
Describe the democratic leadership style.
Describe the Laissez-faire leadership style.
Hands off approach, only when there is an exception that requires a decision, workers highly trained/self-motivated.
Identify the dimensions of leadership.
Making people feel strong, building trust in the leader, cooperating to achieve common goals, confronting conflicts.
Identify the five types of power.
- Reward power
Describe reward power.
One person’s perception of another’s ability to grant rewards. Increases in direct proportion to the amount of rewards a person see another as controlling.
Describe coercive power.
Based upon subordinates perception of a supervisor’s authority to punish. Withholding a promised or expected reward such as a raise or promotion.
Describe identification power.
Derived from someone’s desire to identify with and emulate another. Fire service leaders who are respected can strongly influence others.
Describe expert power.
Knowledge is power, and those who have knowledge also have power. One person’s perception that another’s knowledge and expertise can help him in his endeavors.
Describe legitimate power.
Derived from one of three sources: Shared values, accepted social structure or sanction of a legitimizing agent.
Identify the three types of corrective action required in a given personnel situation.
- Preventative action
- Corrective action
- Punitive action
What is preventative action?
Correct inappropriate behavior
What is corrective action?
When violations repeated
What is punitive action?
Suspension, demotion, termination or prosecution.
Identify how the types of corrective action are used as tool of supervision.
- Educate & train
- Correct inappropriate behavior
- Provide positive motivation
- Ensure compliance
- Provide direction
Identify how to objectively evaluate and counsel members to encourage their development to full capacity.
- Does behavior stem from something on the job?
- Personal problem?
- Ignorance, inability, unwillingness
- Recognize abnormal behavior
- Talk in private
- Professional counseling
Identify the types and procedures for interviews.
- No such thing as off the record
- Beware when asked leading questions
- Avoid disagreements
- Avoid using fire service terminology
- Honesty is the best policy
- Don't answer "what if" questions
- Listen for false or misleading information
- Beware of forced choice questions
- Do not volunteer information
- Be prepared
Identify the procedures to follow when handling citizen complaints.
- Apologize for being inconvenienced
- identify the nature of the complaint
- Ask how they would like the complaint resolved
- Do it
Identify the procedures to follow when handling citizen inquiries.
- Best possible service to our customers
- Always be nice
- Regard everyone as a customer
- Consider how you would like to be treated and how you are treating others
- Don't disqualify the customer
- Basic organizational behavior must become customer centered
- Put differences aside for benefit off the customer
Identify the basics of the organizing process.
Use of the scalar organizational structure which is an uninterrupted series of steps or chain of authority. It is well suited for emergency situations because the span of control is maintained, information is centralized for decision making and the functional chain of command is maintained.
Identify the basics of line and staff differentiation.
- Line are those who deliver emergency services.
- Staff support the line.
Identify the basics of the principles of integration and coordination of the roles and functions of the various tasks.
The division of labor is the breaking down large jobs into smaller tasks and assigning to specific individuals. Reasons for division of labor is to assign responsibility, prevent duplication of effort and make specific, clear-cut assignments
Identify the basics of the company organizational structure.
Unity of command is where each member reports to one supervisor. If this does not happen the following will occur: employee follows last order received even if previous is not completed, employee executes task poorly, because he is trying to do two things at once, employee plays one supervisor against the other, poor production, employee becomes frustrated while attempting to follow conflicting ordered, he gives up
Identify the basics of span of control.
The number of subordinates (3-7) that a supervisor can effectively supervise. Variables include: the ability and experience of supervisor, the ability and experience of subordinates, the nature of the task, the proximity of the subordinates to the supervisor and each other, and consequences of a mistake
Identify the authority and responsibility of each component of the fire department.
It is the legal ability to make and implement decisions. Centralized & decentralized authority.
What is centralized authority?
One person at the top making decisions.
What is decentralized authority?
Lower level making decisions, which is reported through the structure.