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  1. In animals cells, cytoplasmic division is done by furrowing T/F
    T
  2. Nuclear membrane begins to break down in prophase. T/F
    T
  3. Chromosomes are at their maximum condensation in telophase. T/F
    F
  4. Random alignment of the homologous chromosomes happens at metaphase I.
    T/F
    T
  5. There are two nuclear divisions in mitosis and one nuclear division in meiosis.
    T/F
    F
  6. Mitosis and cytokinesis give rise to two clones (genetically identical cells).
    T/F
    T
  7. A human primary oocyte can give rise to only one viable egg.
    T/F
    T
  8. Sister-chromatids are lined up at the equator of the spindle at:

    A) metaphase stage of mitosis    
    B) telophase stage of mitosis
    C) prophase stage of mitosis
    D) anaphase stage of mitosis
    A) metaphase stage of mitosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Chromosomes are duplicated in:
    A) prophase
    B) the G1 stage of interphase
    C) the S stage of interphase
    D) the G2 stage of interphase
    C) the S stage of interphase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Crossing over    
     a) takes place during prophase I stage of meiosis
    b) happens between the nonsister chromatids
    c) produces variety in the genetic make up of the gametes
    D) all of the above
    all of the above
  11. alleas are __ 
    a. different molecular forms of a gene
    b. diff phenotypes
    c. self- fertilizing, true breeding homozygotes
    a
  12. a bell curve indicates __ in a trait
    continuous trait
  13. a heterozygote has a __ for a trait being studied 
    a. pair of identical alleles 
    b. pair of nonidentical alleles
    c. haploid condition, in genetic terms
    b
  14. the observable traits of a organism are its __
    a. phenotype
    b. sociobiology
    c, hybrid generation
    d. none
    a
  15. 2nd generation offspring of a cross between parents who are homozygotes fro different alleles are the ___
    a. F1
    b. F2
    c. hybrid
    d. none
    b
  16. F1 offspring of the AA X aa are
    a. all AA
    b. all aa
    c. all Aa
    d. 1/2 AA & 1/2 aa
    c
  17. homozygotes for different. assuming complete dominance, the F2 genration will show a phenotypic ratio of
    A. 3:1
    b. 9:1
    c: 1:2:1
    d. 9:3:3:1
    a
  18. a testcross is a way to determine___
    a. phenotype
    b. genotype
    c. both a & b
    b
  19. assuming complete dominance, crosses betwwen 2 dihybrid F1 phenotype rations of ___
    a. 1:2:1
    b. 3:1
    c. 1: 1: 1:1
    d. 9:3:3:1
    d
  20. the probability of a cross over occurring between 2 genes on the same chromosome ___
    a. is unrelated to the distance between them
    b. decreases w/ the distance between them 
    c. increases w/ the distance between them
    c
  21. a2 genes that are close together on the same chromosome are ___
    a. linked
    b. identical
    c. homologus
    d. autosomes
    e. all of the above
    a
  22. abbreviation for dihybrid experiment
    AABB X aabb
  23. abbreviation for  monohybrid experiement
    Aa X Aa
  24. abbreviation for  homozygous condition
    bb
  25. abbreviation for heterozygous condition
    Aa
  26. The ___ of chromosomes in a cell are compared to construct karyotypes
    a. length & shape
    b. centromere location
    c. gene sequence
    d. both a & b
    D
  27. the ___ determines sex in humans
    a. x chrom
    b. D11 gene
    c. SRY gene
    d. both a &c
    C
  28. if one parent is heterozygous fro a dominate autosomal allele & the other parent does not carry the allele, a child of theirs has a _____ chance of being heterozygous
    a. 25%
    b. 50%
    c. 75%
    d. no chance it will die
    B
  29. expanision mutations occur __ within & between genes in human chromosomes
    a. rarely
    b. frequently
    c. not at all
    d only in multiples of there
    B
  30. name one X-linked recessive genetic disorder
    hemophilia

    red-green color blindness

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy
  31. men are about 16x more likley to be affected by red- green color blindless than women. WHY
    genes for red & green light photoreceptors are located on X chromosome
  32. T/F
    A son can inherit an X- linked recessive allele from his father
    F
  33. color blindness is a case of ______ inheritance
    a. autosomal dominate
    b. autosomal recessive
    c. x- inked dominant
    d. x- linked recessive
    D
  34. a ____ can alter chroms structure
    a. deletion
    b. duplication
    c. inversion
    d. translocation
    e. all of the above
    E
  35. nondisjunction may occur during___
    a. mitosis
    b. meisosis
    c. fertilization
    d. both a & b
    D
  36. T/F
    body cells may inherit 3 or more of each other of chrome characteristic of the species, a condition called polyploidy
    T
  37. the karyotype fro klinefelter sydrome is____
    a. XO
    b. XXX
    c. XXY
    d. XYY
    C
  38. a recognied set of symptomes that characterize a species disorder is a ____
    a. syndrome
    b. disease
    c. pedigree
    A
  39. def polyploidy
    extra sets of chromes
  40. def deletion
    a chrome segment lost
  41. def aneuploidy
    one extra chrome
  42. def translocation
    segment of a chrome moves to a nonhomologous chrome
  43. def karyotype
    # & defining features of an individual's metaphase chromosomes
  44. def nondisjunction during meiosis
    gametes w/ the wrong chrome #
  45. bacteriophages are viruses that infect ___
    bacteria
  46. which is not a nucleotide base in DNA?
    a. ademine
    b. guanine
    c. uracil
    d. thymine
    e. cytosine
    f. all are in dna
    c
  47. what are the base pairing rules for dna
    a. a-g, tc
    b. ac, tg
    c. au, cg
    d. at, gc
    d
  48. one species dna differds from others in its __ 
    a. sugar
    b. phophates
    c.base sequence
    d. all the above
    c
  49. when dna replication begins
    a. 2 dna strands unwind from each other
    b. 2 dna strands condense dor base transfers
    c. 2 dna molecules bond
    d. old strands move to find new strands
    a
  50. dna requires
    a. templete of dna
    b. free nucleotides. 
    c. dna polymerase
    d. all the above
    d
  51. dna polymearse adds nucleotides to ____ (choose all correct)
    a. double strand dna
    b. single strand dna
    c. double strand rna
    d. single strand rna
    b
  52. show complementry strand of dna that forms on the template for dna fragment during replication

    5' GGTTTCTTCAAGAGA 3'
    3' CCAAAGAAGTTCTCT -5'
  53. ______ IS AN EXAMPLE OF REPRODUCTION CLONING.
    A. somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
    b. asexual reproduction
    c. artificial embryo splitting
    d. a & c
    E. all the above
    D
  54. def bacteriphage
    injects dna into bacteria
  55. def clone
    copy of an organism
  56. def nucleotide
    nitrogen- containing base, sugar, phosphate groups
  57. def purine
    nucleotide base with 2 carbon rings
  58. def dna ligase
    fills in gaps, seals breaks in a dna strand
  59. def dna polymearse
    adds nucleotides to a growing dna strand
  60. def pyrimidine
    nucleotide base with one carbon ring
  61. T/F
    A homozygote has a pair of identical alleles whereas a heterozygote has a       pair of nonidentical alleles
    T
  62. T/F
    Pink color of flowers produced by snapdragon plants is an outcome of incomplete     dominance.
    T
  63. T/F
    If a woman’s genotype at the ABO locus is IA i, her blood type is O.
    F
  64. T/F
    Pleiotropy refers to traits which are resulted from multiple genes.
    F
  65. T/F
     AB blood type is an outcome of co-dominance.
    T
  66. T/F
    Breast cancer is a sex-limited trait.
    T
  67. T/F
    Mendel performed dihybrid crosses to test his theory of independent assortment.
    T
  68. T/F
    Most of human traits are multifactorial traits.
    T
  69. In a paternity suit, a woman with type AB blood accuses a man with type O blood of fathering her child. The child has type AB blood. Could the man be the child’s father?
    a) yes
     b) no
    b) no

                      woman

    •               i       IA       IB
    • man
    •               i    IA         i IB
    •                   i IA       i IB

    •                                     
    • The offspring could be A or B blood type but not AB!
  70. The F2 phenotypic ratio of Mendel’s monohybrid cross is
    a) 1:1
    b) 2:1
    c) 9:3:3:1
    d) 1:2:1
    e) 3:1
    E
  71. Gregor Mendel discovered:
    a) chromosomes
    b) tertiary structure of proteins
    c) the theory of independent assortment
    d) the theory of natural selection
    C
  72. The phenotype of an organism:
    a) are the traits of that organism
    b) is affected by the environment
    c) is affected by its genotype
    d) all of the above
    D
  73. Offspring of the cross AA* aa are:
    a) all AA
    b) all aa
    c) all Aa
    d) 1/2 aa and 1/2 AA
    C
  74. ) The F2 phenotypic ratio of Mendel’s dihybrid cross is
    a) 1:1
    b) 2:1
    c) 9:3:3:1
    d) 1:2:1
    e) 3:1
    C
  75. The F2 genotype ratio of Mendel’s monohybrid cross is
    a) 1:1
    b) 2:1
    c) 9:3:3:1
    d) 1:2:1
    e) 3:1
    D
  76. T/F
    An XO woman is fertile.
    F
  77. t/F

    Human males determine the gender of the offspring.
    T
  78. t/f

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is an X-linked dominant trait.
    T
  79. t/f

    XYY males are fertile.
    T
  80. t/f
    Nondisjunction at anaphase I or anaphase II frequently results in aneuploidy.
    T
  81. A hemophiliac woman has offspring with a normal man. What are the chances of

       hemophilia occurring in their children?
    a) 75%                                        
    b) 50%
    c) 25%
    d) 0%
    B



    •                          woman
    •                    Xh             Xh

    •            XH       XHXh         XHXh
    • man                                          
    •                 YXh           YXh           50% of the offspring will be hemophiliacs!
  82. def  hemophilia
    X-linked recessive disorder
  83. def Klinefelter syndrome
    individual has XXY genotype
  84. def cystic fibrosis
    autosomal recessive disorder
  85. def deletion
    . Cri-du-chat
  86. def Turner Syndrome
    individual has X0 genotype
  87. def Down’s Syndrome
    individual has three of number 21
  88. SRY gene is located on
    . the Y chromosome
  89. presence of three or more of each type              
    of chromosome in gametes or somatic cells.
    polyploidy
  90. t/f
    Adipose tissue cells are filled with lipids.
    T
  91. t/f

    Glial cells conduct nerve impulses while neurons support the glial cells.
    F
  92. t/f

    Endocrine glands produce and release hormones
    T
  93. t/f

    In negative feedback, the stimuli are intensified several folds before homeostasis is resumed.
    F
  94. t/f

    The walls of the stomach are lined with skeletal muscle tissue
    F
  95. t/f

    Collagen and elastin are typically found in connective tissue
    T
  96. t/f
    The function of simple squamous is diffusion.
    T
  97. t/f

    Simple columnar epithelium is found in the lining of gut and respiratory tract
    T
  98. t/f

    The outer layer of skin is consisted of simple epithelium.
    F
  99. Striated and involuntary muscle is
    cardiac muscle
  100. Glands are derived from:
    A) connective tissue
    B) muscle tissue
    C) epithelial tissue
    D) cartilaginous tissue
    C) epithelial tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. a___ is a specialized connective tissue that contains chondrocytes.
    A) bone
    B) blood
    C) muscle
    D) cartilage
    D) cartilage
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. Tendons and ligaments consist of:
    a) loose connective tissue
     b) dense connective tissue
    c) cartilage
    d) bone
    b) dense connective tissue
  103. A heat-sensitive neuron in your skin is an example of a:
    A) effector
    B) integrator
    C) promotor
    D) sensory receptor
    D) sensory receptor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. A chrome contains many genes that re transcribed into different __
    a.proteins
    b.polypeptides
    c.rna
    D. a & b
    C
  105. a binding site for rna polymerase is a ______
    promoter
  106. energy that derives transcription is provided by ____
    high energy phosphate bonds of free nucleotides
  107. An rna molecule is typlically ____ stranded
    single
  108. Rnas form by ___; proteins form by ___

    a. replication
    b. transcription;translation
    c. translation; transcription
    d. replication; transcription
    B
  109. ____ remain in mRNA
    a. introns
    b. exons
    B
  110. how many codons contribute the genetic code
    64
  111. most codons specify a ____
    a.protin
    b.polypeptide
    c.amino acid
    d.mRNA
    C
  112. anticoons pair w/ ___
    a.mRNA
    b.dna
    c.rna anticodons
    d.amino acids
    A
  113. energy that deres translation is provided by______
    a. atp
    b.gtp
    c.utp
    d.a & b correct
    D
  114. translate this nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence, starting at the first base:
    5’G G U U U C U U C A A G A G A 3’
    gly- phe-phe-lys-arg
  115. name one cause of muatations
    replication error, ionizing or non ionizing radation, transposable elemnts, & toxic chemicals are mentioned in the text
  116. def genetic msg
    read as base triplets
  117. def sequence
    linear order of bases
  118. def polysome
    occurs only in groups
  119. def exon
    protein coding mRNA
  120. def genetic code
    set of 64 codons
  121. def intron
    removed b4 translation
  122. def transposable element
    gets around
  123. which statement is false

    A.auxins & gibberellins promote stem elongation
    B.cytokinins promote cell division, retard leaf aging
    C. abscisic acid promotes water loss & dormancy
    D.ethylene promotes fruit ripening & abscission
    C
  124. plant hormones ____
    A.may have multiple affects
    B.are influenced by enviormental cues
    C.are active in plant embryos within seeds
    D.are active in adult plants
    E. all of the above
    E
  125. __ is the strongest stimulus for phototropism
    A.red light
    B.far red light
    C.green light
    D.blue light
    D
  126. ___ light makes phytochrome switch from inactive to active form; ___ light has the opposite effect
    A.red; far red
    B.red;blue
    C.far red; red
    D.far red; blue
    D
  127. in some plants, flowring is a___ response
    A.phototropic
    B.gravitropic
    C.photoperiodic
    D.thigmotropic
    C
  128. def ethylene
    the last of ur apples is getting really mushy
  129. def cytokinin
    lateral buds on ur ficus plant are sprouting branch shoots
  130. def auxin
    the philodendron in ur room is leaning toward the window
  131. def gibberellin
    ur cabbage plants bolt (they form elgogated flowering stalks
  132. def abscisic acid
    the seeds of ur roomates marijuana plant don’t germinate no mater what he does to them

    • a plant hormone that promotes leaf detachment,
    • -induces seed and bud dormancy, and inhibits germination.
  133. simple squamous epithemulm
    function & where
    • – blood vessel walls air sacks of lungs
    • – -function diffusion
  134. simple cuboidal epithelium
    function & where
    • - glands kidney
    • -secretion & absorbtion
  135. simple coulumnar epithelium
    function & where
    • – lining of gut & respitory tract
    • -secretion & absorbtion
  136. Aneuploidy
    the gametes or cells an affected individual end up with one extra or one less chromosome than is normal.
  137. Polyploidy
    of three or more of each type chromosome in gametes or cells. It is common in plants but fatal in humans.
  138. Tetraploid
    result if cytoplasmic divisiondoes not follow normal DNA replication and mitosis
  139. Nondisjunction
    Anaphase 1 or 2 change in # of chrome
  140. tissues I smade of tight ly connected cells
    function on one free surface
  141. Turner Syndrome XO
    involves females whose cells have only one X chromosome ( non fertile)
  142. Klinefelter Syndrome xxy
    extra X chromosome in the cells (XXY) of these affected males ( non fertile)

Card Set Information

Author:
oreoscene
ID:
331410
Filename:
midterm 2 main
Updated:
2017-05-23 16:08:20
Tags:
biology
Folders:
biology
Description:
study guide
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