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What is an assumption?
Something which is accepted as true, without proof
What do we make inferences from?
What is inferred indirect thought?
That what is being inferred in indirect thought. Used to manipulate the reader.
What is 'interpretation'?
- The focus of stylistics.
- Informed, systematic analysis
- How we get words on a page to have a meaning
What is intuition?
- The first layer of interpretation.
- What is obvious or knowing when things may mean more than they appear to
What is cohesion?
How sentences and clauses relate together
What are the two types of cohesion?
- Exophoric - outside of the text
- Endophoric - Inside the text
What is an anaphoric reference?
Referencing back into the text
eg. It was raining [...] The rain was cold.
What is a cataphoric reference?
Referencing forward to the text
"If she wants to, Ellen can take the car!"
What is 'inter alia'?
- An academy to regulate language use proposed by Jonathan Swift.
- (never happened)
What are inflections in language?
Bad habits or use of language
What is verbal hygiene?
- Critiquing assumptions implicit and ideologies of language
- Focusses on discourses of language, how language is conceptualised
- Picks up on prescriptivism
What term refers to all the normative metalinguistic practices through which people attempt to improve languages or regulate their use?
Verbal hygiene practice
What can prescriptivists be criticised for?
Attempting to control language and defy the natural forces of language change
What is monolingualism?
In a society means that they only speak one language
What is prescriptive language?
- Discourses and practices which satisfy ‘verbal hygiene’ are prescriptive
- Prescriptivism (which tends to be conservative and elitist) places highest value on ‘correctness’ whereas other kinds of verbal hygiene may place more emphasis on authenticity, beauty, creativity, truth, equality, logic etc
Verbal hygiene is not a synonym for prescriptivism in a linguistic sense (aka the promotion of correct or standard usage)
What is PC language?
- Politically correct.
- Instance of verbal hygiene
- Supporters of ‘politically correct’ (PC) terminology champion innovative over established usage. Campaigners for plain English are motivated by opposition to elitism.
What was Aristotle's view of politics?
- 'Humankind is a political animal'
- 'Speech is different to voice, which is possessed by animals also'
What is the purpose of a government?
- Organises the production use and distribution of resources
- Organisational framework implemented over communities by them
- Beliefs and attitudes framed by politics
Who was George Orwell?
- Language interventionist
- Concerned with freedom of speech
Who disagreed with Orwell's views on politics and the English language? What did they say?
- Will Self
- Euphemism is vital to language because otherwise the world would appear too brutal.
- Euphemisms exist because
What is logos?
What is ethos?
The character of the speaker
What is pathos?
The effect on the audience
What is standard language?
The language we use in society
What are the features of standard language?
What is prestige in language?
Using correct grammar and wording leads to social prestige whereby wrong linguistic forms are stigmatised
How does authority shape language?
- Powerful people and institutions are seen as having authority to impose rules
- Crucial in implementation and maintenance of standards
Where are you likely to find an intruding sound between words?
Where the word boundaries involve a consonant and a vowel
What is ellison?
Weakening of articulation which makes sounds disappear and connect
What percentage of people in the English census in 2011 named English as their main language?
How did politicians twist the results of the census speaking language in England?
Saying that Polish was 2nd to English even though less than 10% of the country speak it as their primary language
When did verbal hygiene and fears about people being multilingustical rise?
e.g introduction of British citizenship test