chapter 5 nutrition

Card Set Information

chapter 5 nutrition
2010-09-07 06:12:15
chapter nutrition

chapter 5 nutrition
Show Answers:

  1. 1. Know the three classes of fat
    Triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols
  2. What is the best known example of a sterol?
  3. • 95 percent of dietary fat and stored fat ..... glycerol + 3 fatty acids
    When we say “fat,” we generally mean ____________
    • Triglycerides: (Fatty Acids and Glycerol)
    • triglycrides
  4. Energy from fat should provide ___ to ___ percent of the total energy in the diet; intakes of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol should be kept low
    20 to 35
  5. 1. When low on fuel, the body draws on its stored ____ for energy.
  6. Fat cells respond to the call for energy by dismantling stored fat molecules and releasing fat components into the ___________.
  7. ________ _______ make up most of the added fat in the U.S. diet.
    vegtable oil
  8. These fats provide about __ grams of pure fat, providing ___calories
    1 tsp oil or shorteningb.
    1 ½ tsp mayonnaise, butter, or margarinec.
    1 tbl regular salad dressing, cream cheese, or heavy creamd.
    1 ½ tbl sour cream
    • 5 grams
    • 45 calories
  9. __________—A sterol present in all animal tissues.
  10. Free __________ is a component of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for steroid hormones, including estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, and bile acids.
  11. ________ ___________—Consumed from foods of animal origin, including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.
    Dietary cholesterol
  12. Plant foods, such as grains, fruits and vegetables, and oils from these sources contain no dietary ____________.
  13. _________ serves as the raw material for
    1. Bile
    2. Vitamin D
    3. Steroid hormones including the sex hormones
  14. Consume less than __ percent of calories from saturated fatty acids and less than ____ mg/day of cholesterol, and keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible.
    • 10
    • 300
  15. __ __ __ is larger, lighter, and richer in cholesterol. Delivers cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to the tissues.
  16. _ _ _ – smaller, denser, and packaged with more protein. scavenge excess cholesterol and phospholipids from the tissues for disposal
  17. _________ ___________Travels in the blood in distinct particles containing both lipids and proteins. Three major classes of lipoproteins are found in the serum of a fasting individual: low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). Another lipoprotein class, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), resides between VLDL and LDL; in clinical practice, IDL is included in the LDL measurement.
    Serum cholesterol—
  18. . LDL are made from _______ after they have donated many of their triglycerides to body cells.
  19. . LDL are made from _______ after they have donated many of their triglycerides to body cells.
  20. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid
    B. Omega-6 And Omega-3 Fatty Acid Families
  21. 1._________ acid is the “parent” member of the omega-6 fatty acid family
  22. Linoleic is Abundant in ___________ oils
  23. b. Linoleic acid can be converted to other members of this family, for example, ___________ acid
  24. 2. Linolenic acid is the “parent” member of the omega-____ fatty acid family – Linolenic acid can be converted to other members of this family, for example, _____ and _____
    • THREE
    • EPA
    • DHA
  25. Most Americans get mostly omega-___ from vegetable oils, salad dressings, and margarine and they need to balance this with more _______
  26. Average U.S. intake of EPA and DHA is ____ mg/day AND Recommended is ______ mg/day (about ___ fatty fish meals per week) to reduce CVD
    • 150
    • 500
    • 2
  27. Cardiovascular deaths occur less frequently in countries with higher intakes of _____ AND _____ from seafood.
    EPA and DHA
  28. Food Sources of Omega-__ Fatty Acids
    • a.Egg producers fortify certain brands of eggs by adding only fish meal to chicken food THEN The chickens lay ______-enriched eggs
    • 3
    • DHA
  29. – The number one dietary determinant of LDL cholesterol is ________ _______.
    saturated fat
  30. Elevated blood cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Among major dietary factors that raise blood cholesterol, _____ fat and ________ fat intakes are most influential.
  31. Trans fats act like saturated fats in the body.. Consumers should not lose sight of __________ fats as the main dietary risk factor for heart and artery disease.
  32. A lot of trans fatty acids formed during ____________
  33. Consuming ______ fat poses a risk to heart and arteries by:a. Raising blood LDL cholesterol
    b. Lowering blood HDL cholesterol
    c. Increasing tissue inflammation, a key player in heart diseased.
  34. ___________ fats:
    a. Resist rancidity; more resistant to oxidation
    b. Are firmer textured; more spreadable
    d. Have a higher smoking point than unsaturated oilse.
    Are unhealthy
  35. ______________ and ____________ fats are the two unsaturated fats. They're found mainly in many fish, nuts, seeds and oils from plants. Some examples of foods that contain these fats include salmon, trout, herring, avocados, olives, walnuts and liquid vegetable oils such as soybean, corn, safflower, canola, olive and sunflower.
    Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats