LCS OOD Quiz 1

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  1. IALA A vs B
    • B: USA, South America, Japan, Philippines
    • A: Everyone else
  2. Preferred Channel Buoys
    • Preferred to Port: Red with green band
    • Preferred to Starboard: Green with Red Band
    • "Preferred to" means keep it on that side of you
    • *Examples assume IALA B*
  3. North Cardinal Mark N/S
    • Black Above Yellow (N) / Black cones point up
    • Black below Yellow (S) / Black Cones point down
  4. East Cardinal Mark
    • Black with yellow band
    • Up/Down Arrows
  5. West Cardinal Mark
    • Yellow with black band
    • Arrow apexes together
  6. Cardinal Buoy light colors
    white
  7. Isolated danger buoy
    • Black with one ore more red bands
    • Ball/Ball topmark
    • White light
  8. Safe water mark
    • Red w/ white vertical stripes
    • Single red sphere topmark
    • white light
  9. Special Mark
    • Yellow
    • Single X Shape
    • Yellow light
  10. North Cardinal Mark Lighting Flashes
    • Quick (at least 50 flashes)
    • or Very Quick (at least 80 flashes)
  11. East Cardinal Mark Flashes
    • Quick (3) every 10 seconds
    • or Very Quick (3) every 5 seconds
  12. South Cardinal Mark Flashes
    • Very Quick (6) + long flash every 10 seconds
    • Quick Flashing (6) + long flash every 15 seconds
  13. West Cardinal Mark Flashes
    • Very quick flashing (9) every 10 secs
    • or Quick flashing (9) every 15 secs
  14. Safe Water Mark Flashes
    • White Isophase occulting
    • Long flash every 10 seconds
    • Morse "A" ( . __ )
  15. LCS-2 carries ___ shot of chain, ____ shot of wire
    • 1/2 shot of chain
    • 12 shots of wire
  16. 1 shot =
    • 15 fathoms
    • 90 feet
  17. VLCC vs ULCC
    Very Large or Ultra Large Crewed Carrier
  18. Plimsoll Mark
    Lowest you can load ship in summer
  19. TF/F/T/S/W/WNA lines
    • Tropical Freshwater
    • Freshwater
    • Tropical Load
    • Summer
    • Winter
    • Winter N. Atlantic
  20. Publication for researching Navy ports
    Fleet Guides
  21. Fluxgate
    • Measures horizontal component of earth magnetic field
    • Also subject to variation and deviation
  22. 1 mile =
    • 6,076 ft
    • 2,000 yds
  23. 1 minute of latitude =
    • 1 nautical mile
    • Degree = 60 "minutes"
  24. Types of Charts
    • Standard
    • Strip
    • Cruising/Specialty
    • Chart Books
  25. On what charts are great circles straight lines?
    Oblique Mercator
  26. On what lines are rhumb lines straight lines?
    Mercator
  27. Chart with true shape of physical features
    perspective
  28. Chart with correct angular relationships
    conforming
  29. Radar range of pillar buoy
    • 3-4 miles, depending on radar/sea return
    • Cans/nuns: 1-2 miles
  30. RACON on buoy increases radar range of buoy to
    6-8 miles or more
  31. Lateral marks: WR preceding number
    wreck
  32. Lateral Marks: Numbers will ___ as you move in sea
    • Increase
    • Will not necessarily go in exact sequential order
  33. Nominal range of a light on normal sized buoy
    3.8 miles
  34. "Flashing"
    Not more than 30 flashes per minute
  35. "Quick Flashing"
    • Not more than 60 flashes per minute
    • Red/Green/or Yellow
  36. "Very Quick Flashing"
    • 80-160 flashes per minute
    • Usually indicates a turn a head or some other attention grabbing thing
  37. whistle buoys activated by
    wave action
  38. Horn buoy activated by
    • electricity
    • usually better where calm
  39. Isolated danger mark flashes
    Group flashing (2)
  40. Emergency wreck marking buoy
    • Yellow/Blue vertical stripes
    • blue/yellow 1 second flashes with .5 second interval
    • pillar or spar
  41. One knot of current has approximately same effect as
    30 knots of wind
  42. SART
    • SAR Transponder
    • Will only respond to an X-Band (3 cm wavelength) radar
  43. Increase in dew point is increase
    in energy available for storm formation
  44. standard atmospheric pressure
    • 1013.25 mb
    • 29.92 Hg
    • 14.7 psi
  45. Dry adiabatic lapse rate
    5.5 degrees F per 1000 ft of altitude change
  46. Fog forms when difference between temp and dew point is generally less than
    • 2.5 C or 4 F
    • More comment when temp of air is around 5 C or 40 F
  47. There are ___ NAVAREA's with ____ broadcasts by NGA
    • 21 NAVAREAs
    • Weekly broadcasts
  48. Isogonic Lines
    • Equal Lines of variation
    • Distance between each line is variation
  49. "Stand"
    Point where vertical movement of water has stopped
  50. Safe Water Mark: "MILO"
    • Morse Code Alpha ( dot dash )
    • Isophase (Same time on as off)
    • Long Flash (10 seconds)
    • Occulting (More on than off)
  51. "Returning"
    • Moving from big water to smaller water
    • Proceeding south around an island or landmass
  52. How does GPS work?
    • GPS sends time
    • Time delay used to return posit
    • 3x of this issued to fix a position
  53. Differential GPS
    Ground Based
  54. WAAS
    • Wide Area Augmented System
    • Satellite-Based
  55. Luminous vs Nominal Range
    • Luminous: Range of visibility under current conditions
    • Nominal: Maximum distance it can be sighted during 10 nm of visiblity
  56. UTM Charts
    NSFS
  57. A great circle is a straight line on a
    Gnomonic Projection
  58. Every fix must have a DR track
    projected ahead 2 intervals
  59. Estimated fix
    • only has 2 LOP's
    • Is marked as a square
  60. Running Fix
    Single LOP DR'ed out
  61. Set vs Drift
    • Set = Direction
    • Drift = Speed
  62. Measuring height under a bridge
    Measured from mean high water to lowest part of bridge
  63. Deviation vs Variation
    • Deviation: Caused by ship's magnetic field
    • Variation: Caused by Earth's magnetic field
  64. Digits: Lat vs Long
    • Lat has 2 digits
    • Lon has 3 digits
  65. Tangent Circle on a transverse mercator
    is on a meridian of longitude
  66. Mercator projection accuracy
    usually within 10 degrees
  67. NAVAREA IV / XII distress messages
    handled by USCG, not NGA
  68. Summary of all broadcast warning and special warning in past 24-72 hrs
    Daily Memorandum
  69. Navigational warning system outside NAVAREA IV and XII
    HYDROPAC/HYDROLANT
  70. NTM Broadcasts
    • Broadcast by USCG
    • Channel 22A and 16
  71. Local notice to mariners (LNM)
    • Published by USCG weekly
    • Like NTM, but more coastal and broken up by USCG district
  72. US Notice to Mariners (NTM)
    • Published by NGA weekly
    • Provides corrections for unclassified nautical charts
  73. Satellite Compass
    measures phase difference of satellites
  74. 1 knot in mph
    • 1 1/8 mph
    • 8 kts = 9 mph
  75. Sailing Directions
    • International waters
    • Published by NGA
  76. Coast Pilots
    • US Waters
    • 9 Volumes
  77. Fundamental document establishing standards of navigational accuracy
    NAVDORM
  78. Restricted Waters
    • less than 2nm from land
    • FOM <= 2
    • 3 min fixes
  79. Piloting Waters
    • 2-10 nm
    • FOM <= 4
    • 3-15 minute fixes
  80. Coastal Waters
    • 10-30nm
    • FOM <= 6
    • 15 - 30 min fixes as conditions warrant
  81. Open Ocean
    • >30 nm
    • FROM <= 7
    • 30 min fixes or as conditions warrant
  82. "Heave Around to Short Stay"
    Heave in on chain until it is vertical but anchor is still embedded in bottom"
  83. Walk the anchor out
    if the depth > 100 ft
  84. Anchor is ready for letting go
    Brake is disconnected, all but one stopper removed, weight of anchor hanging on remaining stopper
  85. Anchor at short stay
    Chain vertical, anchor still embedded
  86. Anchor is up and down
    Anchor has broken ground, still resting on bottom
  87. Anchor is secure for sea
    Anchor is housed and stoppers passed
  88. How to tell if dragging anchor
    • GPS anchor watch alarm
    • Anchor chain surging
  89. Recommended anchor chain vs depth
    5-7 times water depth
  90. Swing circle
    From anchor to stem of ship
  91. Drag circle
    from anchor to whatever sensor used to determine if ship is dragging
  92. Check vs Hold
    • Check: Hold until taut
    • Hold: Hold until part
  93. Best anchor bottom vs worst
    • Best: Firm sand
    • Worst: Hard bottom
  94. Spectra vs Kevlar
    • Spectra is 40% stronger and floats
    • Breaking strength of 1/4" line is 8k lbs
  95. "Double Braided"
    Has a core
  96. 11.25 degrees
    one point
  97. Isolated danger lighting
    white light/group flashing (2)
  98. Bridge: Green lights
    • Mark centerline of navigable channel
    • Red lights mark ends of span
  99. Info regarding lighthouses
    • Light List
    • or LoL
  100. Geographic range
    • Function of height of light and observer's eye
    • Sqrt 1.17 * height of light
  101. Regulatory Mark: Diamond
    Danger
  102. Regulatory Mark: Restricted Ops
    Circle
  103. Regulatory Mark: Diamond with cross
    Exclusion area
  104. Regulatory Mark: Square
    Information
  105. MRASS
    • Marine Radio Activated Sound Signal
    • click 5x on VHF on 81a or 83a
  106. Tidal Day
    • 1 high and 1 low tide a day
    • 24 hrs and 50 mins
  107. semidurnal tides
    • 2 highs and 2 lows
    • 6hrs 12 mins between them
  108. Spring tides
    • Increased range, higher highs and lower lows
    • New moon or full moon
  109. Neap tide
    Tide is decreased range nad occurs when moon is half
  110. Datum (Tide)
    Difference between heights of a given high and subsequent low tide
  111. slack water
    when horizontal movement of water stops
  112. MLW
    Mean of all low waters in a 19 year period
  113. MHW
    Mean of all high waters in a 19 year period
  114. DSC vs VHF
    • DSC is part of GMDSS
    • DSC has distress signals
    • DSC can call a specific ship
  115. BTB Channel 13
    • For passing, etc. 
    • Must be monitored
  116. VHF 87b/88b
    AIS
  117. VHF 22a
    USCG NTM
  118. NUC
    Not able to comply due to "exceptional circumstance"
  119. Where can you find a demarcation line?
    • Coastal pilots
    • chart
    • back of colregs
  120. You are overtaking if
    more than 22.5 degrees abaft beam
  121. Sailing rules: Stay out of way
    • Wind on Port Side
    • Downwind
    • Unsure
  122. COLREGS: Flashing
    • 120/min
    • (VQ on a buoy)
  123. COLREGS: Yellow 3-flash
    • Morse code "S"
    • Submarine
  124. Where to find VTS info
    • coast pilots
    • COLREGS book
  125. COLREGS: ___ . .
    • "D"
    • U/W at anchor + RAM
    • Difficulty Maneuvering
  126. COLREGS: ___ . . .
    • "B"
    • "Hazardous Cargo"
  127. COLREGS: At Anchor
    • Rapid ringing of bell for 5 secs / 1 min interval
    • + 5 seconds gong if > 100 m
  128. Troposphere
    • Bottom 8 miles of atmosphere
    • Temperature drops quickly as you ascend
  129. Cooling with increased altitude
    • Lapse Rate
    • Standard: 3.6 F per 1000'
  130. Relationship between water and energy
    • More water vapor in air, air becomes lighter
    • More water in air, more energy air can carry
  131. Relationship between heat and water vapor
    • Hotter air can carry more water vapor
    • (more water vapor can carry more energy)
  132. Relative Humidity
    • How much tendency there is for water vapor to condensate in atmosphere at current temperature.
    • Measured in percent
  133. Dew Point
    • Temperature where particular air we are looking at would reach saturation.
    • Increase in dew point is increase in available energy
  134. Standard atmospheric pressure
    • 1013.25 mb
    • 29.92" Hg
    • 14.7 psi
  135. Humidity in atmosphere measured using
    • Hygrometer
    • Most common type is a psychrometer
  136. Isobars are usually spaced
    • 4 mb apart
    • These are lines of equal atmospheric pressure
  137. Drop of 1mb/hr
    is pretty bad
  138. Change in pressure over time
    tendency
  139. Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
    • 5.5 F per 1000' of altitude change
    • Specific to dry air rising or falling
  140. Saturated adiabiatic lapse rate
    • 3.2 F per 1000' of altitude change
    • Applies to saturated (100% humidity) air
  141. Warm air vs Cold air with water
    • Warm air can carry a lot of water
    • Cold air cannot
  142. Reasons air might move upward
    • Convective heating
    • Cold air meeting warm air
    • Air meeting with a mountain range
  143. High, thin clouds developing in wisps/patches
    • Cirrus
    • "Mare's tails"
  144. Stratus
    layered
  145. Advection Fog
    • Moist air passing over a cool surface
    • California
  146. Horizontal Movement of air
    • Advection
    • aka Wind
  147. Wind measured using
    anemometer
  148. Isobar
    Lines of equal pressure with 4mb separation
  149. Wind which follows isobars perfectly
    • Geostrophic wind
    • aka Gradient Wind
  150. Determine wind direction at surface using isobars
    • Cross isobars at 90 degrees from high to low
    • curve 70 degrees to right (N. Hemisphere)
  151. Different reflectivity on earth's surface
    Albedo
  152. Movement of energy through air vs water
    • Air moves 60% of energy
    • Ocean moves 40%
  153. Convection
    hot air becomes lighter than surrounding air and rises
  154. Region of rising air at equator
    • Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
    • Doldrums
  155. Horse Latitudes
    • Descending air around the 30 degree mark
    • Air moved here via hadley cell
    • Results in trade winds/prevailing westerlies
  156. Air rising at 60's cycling back toward equator at high altitude
    Ferrel Cell
  157. Winds blowing outward from poles
    • Polar northeasterlies (arctic)
    • Polar Southeasterlies (antarctic)
  158. Wind blowing along an isobar
    Geostrophic
  159. Along a front, isobars tend to ____ away from low pressure areas
    • Kink
    • This creates a wind shift
  160. Veering vs backing wind
    • Veering wind shifts to right (CW)
    • Backing wind shift to left (CCW)
  161. Cold front characteristics
    • Rapid drop in dew point
    • Air is getting dryer
  162. Occluded front
    • Purple in color
    • 3 distinct masses of air
    • cold font overtakes a warm front, wedges it aloft
  163. Stages of cyclonic weather
    • 1. Stationary front
    • 2. Cold front overtakes warm front
    • 3. Occluded front dissolves, leaving extratropical cyclonic low
  164. SW Pacific Hurricane / Indian Ocean
    Cyclone
  165. NW Pacific Hurricane
    Typhoon
  166. Buys-Ballots law memory aid
    Back to the breeze, low to your left
  167. Anti-Cyclones
    • High pressure systems rotating in opposite direction as lows
    • CW rotation in N. Hemisphere
    • Move west -> east 
    • Blow out and away from high pressure systems
  168. Significant Wave Height
    Average of highest 1/3 wave height
  169. Thunderstorms require 3 ingredients for formation
    • 1. Moisture
    • 2. Instability
    • 3. Lifting Mechanism
  170. Air mass thunderstorms
    • form as part of single convective cell over hot land or water
    • Convection provides lift mechanism
  171. Squall lines
    • Can generate their own lift
    • Have shelf clouds and gust fronts
  172. Waterspouts
    • Can be fair weather or tornadic
    • Speeds 50-60 pmh
  173. Fetch
    Distance over water which wind blows
  174. Vessel Being Towed
    • Sidelights & Sternlight
    • If being pushed ahead: Just sidelights
  175. Towing Vessel
    • 2x masthead lights in vertical line
    • If tow > 200m, 3x masthead lights + diamonds
    • Sidelights/Sternlight
    • Towlight
  176. Partly submerged objects being towed
    • <25m breadth: 360 white light at each end
    • >25m breadth: 2x additional white lights at each extremity
    • >100m length: white lights so distance between them doesn't exceed 100m
  177. Dracones being towed
    do not need to exhibit a light at forward end
  178. Vessel being towed alongside
    sidelights + sternlight
  179. Special Flashing Light use
    • 50-70 flashes/minute
    • Inland towing alongside/pushing ahead
    • Placed as far forward as possible
  180. SART on RADAR
    Shows up as 12 dots
  181. Refraction
    • Waves change direction as they pass from medium of one density to medium of different density
    • Waves will bend toward denser medium
  182. Increased downward bending of waves as they travel through atmosphere along surface of earth
    Super refraction
  183. Slight upward bend/decreased downward bend of waves as they travel through atmosphere
    Subrefraction
  184. Highly refractive layer in atmosphere resulting in radar pulse ricocheting between surface of ocean and bottom of layer
    • Extra super refraction
    • aka Ducting
  185. Waves changing direction/bending as they pass through an opening or around a barrier
    Diffraction
  186. Attenuation
    Tendency of radar energy to dissipate without returning to receiver
  187. TR Tube
    • Disconnects receiver 
    • ATR tube disconnects transmitter
  188. Advantages of slotted waveguide antenna
    • Low cost
    • Less wind exposure
  189. Factors affecting radar presentation/interpretation
    • Frequency of pulse
    • Power
    • Shape of pulse
    • Pulse length/duration
  190. Primary determinant in range resolution/accuracy
    Pulse Length
  191. 3 cm vs 10 cm
    • 3 cm most common, not good for heavy rain/sea
    • 10 cm less clear, but good for heavy sea/rain
  192. Range vs pulse length (PL)
    • Short range = Short PL
    • Long range = Long PL
  193. Range Resolution
    ability of radar to separate two contacts on same bearing with slightly different range
  194. _____ PL gives better range reoslution
    Short
  195. Range Accuracy
    • ability to measure range to a contact
    • Usually about half of pulse length
  196. Long PL
    Ability to see smaller contacts further out
  197. Horizontal beam width
    Generally about one degree
  198. The _____ the antenna, the _____ the horizontal beam width
    Longer, narrower
  199. Indirect echo
    Appears on other side of an obstruction
  200. Fresnel Zones
    • Caused by slight difference in phase as pulse travels to target by different paths
    • Makes contacts disappear
  201. STC
    • Sensitivity Time Control
    • Decreases radar sensitivity near center of screen
  202. FTC
    • Fast time constant
    • Decreases sensitivity at edges of contact
  203. RACON on RADAR
    always begins with a dash
  204. ARPA
    • Auto RADAR Plotting Aid
    • Requires 1-3 mins of steady state tracking
    • Up to 90% accurate
  205. Operational ARPA Alarms
    • CPA
    • Lost Target
    • Target overlap
  206. CPA Alarm
    • Only goes off if both range and time criteria will be violated
    • You set the criteria
  207. LCS-2 Beam
    104 ft
  208. LCS-2 Draft
    • 14 ft
    • 19.7 ft with AZI deployed
  209. LCS-2 Displacement
    3071 tons
  210. LCS-2 LOA
    • 419 ft
    • (424 ft specifically on IND)
  211. High speed defined by USCG
    30kts
  212. IMO Froude Formula
    Depends on displacement, determines compliance w/high speed code
  213. Newton's 3rd Law
    Every action has equal/opposite reaction
  214. Hydraulic RAM's
    • 3x on each bucket
    • 2 for steering, 1 for backing
  215. Stator vanes (shaft)
    Structurally support aft end of shaft
  216. LCS-2 Speed max with AZI down
    • 8 kts
    • 5 while deploying
  217. 2L
    • GT+GT
    • DE+DE
  218. 2PS
    Ports vs Starboards
  219. 4L
    All controls slaved to one
  220. Under keel clearance
    • Keep 6ft below keel
    • Keep 12 ft below jets
  221. Transverse Wave
    follows behind a ship

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Author:
bbetanco
ID:
331732
Filename:
LCS OOD Quiz 1
Updated:
2017-06-04 19:25:19
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LCS OOD Quiz
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LCS OOD Study
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