Animal Biodiversity

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  1. homeotic (hox) genes
    specifies the identity of a body part or segment during embryonic development.

    ex. instruct the 3 thoracic segments (T1, T2, T3) each to develop a set of legs and the 2nd thoracic segment (T2) to develop wings

    Hox gene clusters have been identified in a wide variety of animals with bilateral symmetry
  2. porifera
    • sponges
    • contain no tissues (Parazoa), but still has specialized cells
    • still considered multicellular heterotrophic animals
  3. specialized cells of porifera
    • porocytes: pores
    • choanocytes: contains flagella to create current, also phagocytose food
    • amoebocyte: shuttle food particles through the mesophyl
    • spongocoel: main cavity
    • osculum: exit, where current goes out
    • spicules: silica or calcium carbonate skeleton
  4. Eumetazoa
    all organisms that have tissue (will either be radial or bilateral)
  5. radial symmetry
    • diploblastic
    • necessary for slow or immobile organisms because they have a 360 degree response to their environment
    • ancestral to bilateral symmetry
    • Cnidarians all have radial symmetry.
  6. cnidarians
    • radial symmetry
    • diploblastic (2 embryonic tissue types): epiderm & endoderm
    • can be polyp or medusa
    • special features: cnidocytes (stinging cells on tentacles) and nematocysts (capture prey)
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  7. Hydrozoa
    • type of cnidarian
    • polyp dominant (sessile) but also has a medusa stage (mobile)
    • fire coral
    • portuguese man-o-war (colony of polyp)
    • Image Upload
  8. Scyphozoa
    • type of cnidarian
    • true jellyfish
    • exclusively medusa form
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  9. Cubozoa
    • type of cnidarian
    • boxy jellyfish with extremely potent venom and highly developed eyes
    • exclusively medusa form
    • Image Upload
  10. Anthozoa
    • type of cnidarian
    • include sea anemones & most corals
    • strictly polyp form
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  11. bilateral symmetry
    • triploblastic (3 embryonic tissue types): endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
    • coevolved with cephalization & movement
    • includes protostomes & deuterostomes
  12. protostomes
    • Blastopore develops into the mouth.
    • spiral & determinate cleavage: Eary on, cells have a fixed destination so alteration to an embryo at an early stage is likely to be fatal.
    • Mesoderm comes from solid masses of cells near the blastopore, which develop into the coelom (body cavity).
    • includes mollusks, annelids, anthropods
  13. deuterostomes
    • Blastopore develops into the anus
    • indeterminate radial cleavage: Alteration to one cell early on is not likely to have an effect on the end form (totipotent)
    • Folds of archenteron form coelom.
    • includes echinoderms & chordates
  14. Lophotrochozoans
    protostomes that have a lophophore (crown of ciliated tentacles around the mouth) and a larva phase during development

    • flat worms (Platyhelminthes)
    • Bryozoa
    • Annelids
    • Mollusks
  15. flat worms
    • triploblastic & bilateral
    • acoelomate (no body cavity): reason they are flat

    • Turbellaria: free living (does not live inside an organisms's body)
    • Monogeneans: parasitic on fish
    • Trematodes: parasitic flukes
    • Cestoidea: parasitic tapeworms
  16. ribbon worms (Nemerteans)
    pseudocoelomates (false body cavity): only partially lined by mesoderm
  17. mollusks
    • eucoelomates (full body cavities): complete gut
    • has a mantle for gas exchange, a muscular food, only real shells, gills to filter feed (secondary for gas exchange)
    • radula is a tongue-like structure
    • include gastropods, cephalopods, bivalve, & chitons
  18. type of mollusk that has 8 separate shell plates (valves)
    chiton (Polyplacophora)
  19. gastropods
    • group of mollusks that include snails and slugs
    • mostly hermaphrodites
    • use radula to scrape algae off rocks
  20. cephalopods
    • group of mollusks that include squid and octopi
    • "head foot"
  21. bivalves
    • group of mollusks that include clams and oysters
    • has 2 shells (valves)
    • incurrent and excurrent siphons
  22. characteristics of annelids
    • eucoelomates (full body cavities)
    • segmentation
    • cutaneous respiration
    • has complex organ systems, mouth, esophagus
  23. types of annelids
    • Oligochaetes: earthworms
    • Polychaetes: have parapodia (paired feet), live in oceans
    • Hirudinea: leeches (parasitic)
  24. Ecdysozoans
    • protostomes that shed or molt
    • include nematodes & anthropods
  25. nematodes (roundworms)
    • type of Ecdysozoan
    • pseudocoelomate (false body cavity):
    • has digestive & reproductive organs surrounded by a fluid-filled cavity
  26. arthropods
    • group of Ecdysozoans that has jointed legs
    • Hox genes important in segmented body plan giving rise to diverse appendages
    • has an external skeleton made of chiton (polysaccharide)
    • include chelicerates (spiders, scorpions, ticks), myriapods (centipedes & millipedes), crustaceans (lobsters, shrimp, crabs), and insects
  27. chelicerates
    • arthropods that include spiders, scorpions, and horse-shoe crabs
    • only anthropod that lack antennae
    • has a cephalothorax
    • pincerlike claws called chelicerae
  28. myriapods
    • arthropods that include centipedes & millipedes
    • many pairs of legs
  29. crustaceans
    • arthropods that have branched legs
    • has sensory antennae
  30. insects
    • only arthropods to develop wings
    • shed exoskeleton but cannot molt wings
  31. hexapods
    • has 6 legs
    • have a head, abdomen, and thorax
  32. echinoderms
    • group of deuterostomes that include sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers
    • has a water vascular system for respiration & movement
    • has tube feet that allow them to crawl, sense their environment, capture food, and breathe
  33. Hemichordates have __
    • a pharynx with pharyngeal slits
    • a dorsal nerve cord

    ex. acorn worms
  34. 3 subphyla of chordates
    • cephalochordates
    • urochordates (tunicates)
    • vertebrates (craniates)
  35. characteristics of chordates
    • notochord (stiff rod of collagen)
    • dorsal, hollow nerve cord
    • muscular, post-anal tail
    • pharyngeal slits or clefts
    • myotomes
  36. urochordata
    • tunicates (sea squirts)
    • has a pharynx with numerous slits
    • Water and wastes are expelled through an anal siphon.
    • has a larva stage with chordate characteristics that are lost in the adult stage
  37. cephalochordates
    • chordates that lack a well-differentiated head & has no cranium or vertebrate
    • Instead, it has elongated bodies with a notochord that extends the length of the body from "head to toe"

    ex. lancelets (amphioxus)
  38. agnatha
    • jawless vertebrates
    • includes myxini (hagfish) and lampreys

    Hagfish has knotting behavior.
  39. gnathostomes
    • jawed fish
    • includes chondrichthyes & osteichthyes
  40. chondrichthyes
    • cartilaginous fish
    • has placoid scales (modified dermal scales)
    • includes sharks and rays
  41. osteichthyes
    • bony fish
    • has dermal scales
    • includes ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish
  42. tetrapods
    • amphibians and all amniotes (reptiles, mammals, birds)
    • Ancestors may have been lobe-finned fish
  43. amnion
    • desiccation-resistant shell
    • can exchange gases while retaining water
    • permit long development times
    • allows organisms to be in dry terrestrial habitats
  44. amphibians
    • do not have scales, absorb water directly through skin
    • tetrapods but not amniotes
  45. reptiles
    • scales made of alpha and beta keratin and formed from the epidermis
    • Feathers of birds are modified epidermal scales that retain body heat.

    • anapsids: no additional holes in the temporal region of the skull (tortoises)
    • diapsids: 2 holes in the temporal region of the skull (crocodiles)
  46. characteristics of all mammals
    • hair (permits retention of body heat)
    • mammary glands
  47. prototherians
    • monotremes
    • lay eggs
    • don't have nipples. Instead, the young drink milk secreted from pores in the skin of the mother's belly
  48. metatherians
    • marsupials
    • doesn't have a placenta so uses pouch
    • The young are born at an early stage of development.
  49. eutherians
    • placental mammals
    • Placenta enables the offspring to be larger and more quickly independent when born.
Card Set:
Animal Biodiversity
2017-06-12 22:50:25

Ch 44
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