INFO262 Exam Interaction Design

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  1. Interaction design, what is it?
    IxD. Designing interactive (digital) products, environments, systems, and services and exploring how a user might interact with them. They are products to support the way people communicate and interact in their everyday and working lives.

    «One main aim of interaction design is to reduce the negative aspects (e.g. frustration, annoyance) of the user experience while enhancing the positive ones (e.g. enjoyment, engagement). In essence, it is about developing interactive products that are easy, effective, and pleasurable to use – from the users’ perspective.»
  2. What are the design Principles?
    Normans Principles. Visibility, Feedback, Constraints, Consistency, Affordances,
  3. Define VISIBILITY
    The user should not find it difficult to understand the product or system. The functions of the system or product should be evident just be looking at the device. it should be clear to the user what actions are available and how they can be performed.
    what can we do with a rug? we can stand on it. making the primary action a button instead of just text link like everything else on a website makes it more obvious, accessible, and visible.
  5. Define FEEDBACK
    There should be some immediate and obvious kind of signal to let the user know that there was a response or a result.
  6. Define Haptic Feedback. What are some problems?
    • Tactile feedback is touch - vibrations, pressure, touch, texture.
    • Kinesthetic: The things you feel from sensors in your muscles, joints, tendons. Weight, stretch, joint angles of your arm, hand, wrist, fingers, etc.
    • Haptic Feedback is a combination.

    Problems with Haptic - Where to place actuators on user’s body? How does the wearer feel it in different contexts?
  7. Feedback Examples
    what happens when you click and nothing happens? you dont know. have a different idea of what is going on. loading, better with % than just waiting bar or circle. you see how the progress is moving forward.
  8. Define Constraints
    Restricting possible actions helps prevent users from selecting incorrect options.

    «A common design practice in graphical user interfaces is to deactivate certain menu options by shading them gray, thereby restricting the user only to actions permissible at that stage of the activity»
  9. Constraint Examples
    • Product that needs something else to work - kite without a string. Examples of physical constraints: seat belt, locking mechanism, USB-port (only one way to insert the USB key).
    • Examples of logical constraints: speed limit, log-in system.
    • Examples of cultural constraints: language, keyboard for different languages.
  10. Define Consistency
    Interfaces should have similar operations and use similar elements for similar tasks. Interal- within an application, external- across applications. Universal symbols and colors. Standards. Example the key pad of cellular phones
  11. Define Mapping
    • Mapping principle also known as 'natural mapping' means that there should be a logical and/or cultural spatial/temporal relationship on how the product is used and displayed. There should be a relation between actions and intentions on using the product or system. The more clear the relationship is the easier it is for users to become accustomed to the product or device.
    • One problem that exists with mapping is that the more complex the system or device is the harder is it to make it easy to use. If you do not take into account previous relations, users will become confused on your random mapping.
    • For example, the cursor keys on the keyboard.
  12. Define Affordances and give examples
    “Affordances provide strong clues to the operations of things. Knobs are for turning. Slots are for inserting things into. Balls are for throwing or bouncing. When affordances are taken advantage of, the user knows what to do just by looking: no picture, no label or instruction needed.” - Don Norman. "Does the design provide intuitive clues on what can or should be done?" e.g. to push or pull a door.

    «Norman (1999) suggests that there are two kinds of affordance: perceived and real. Physical objects are said to have real affordances, like grasping… screen-based interfaces are better conceptualized as perceived affordances, which are essentially learned conventions»
  13. What is a norman door?
    A door where the design tells you to do the opposite of what you are actually supposed to do. Or a door that geeks the rong signal and needs a sign to correct it.
  14. Define Discoverability
    The ability to discover what operations one can do.
  15. Human Centered Design Process
    Observation -> idea generation -> prototyping -> testing -> observation
  16. Best types of Doors
    A flat panel, swinging door, you have no other option than to push, its intuitive. (Could be similar to constraints, by not having a handle you prevent the user from doing the wrong action, but the affordance is figuring out the possibilities for user interaction provided by the product.) Also an emergency door with a bar off to one side so you can see which side you are supposed to push on.
    • to be user friendly
    • effective to use, efficient to use, easy to learn, easy to remember how to use, safe to use

    learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, satisfaction
  18. What is learnability
    How easy is it for users to accomplish basic tasks the first time they encounter the design?
  19. What is efficiency
    Once users have learned the design, how quickly can they perform tasks?
  20. What is memorability
    When users return to the design after a period of not using it, how easily can they reestablish proficiency?
  21. what is satisfaction
    how pleasant is it to use to design?
  22. What is the first thing to do in IxD?
    • observation. 
    • Early focus on users and tasks: directly studying how users think, behave, and which attitude people have.
    • Could also start with testing, how do people use this now and how can I do it better?
  23. IxD Model. Process of interaction design.
    establish requirements, redesign (designing alternatives), prototyping, evaluating, start again. what do users really want / need that they dont know yet)
  24. What is a conceptual model?
    A high level description of how a system is organized and operates. Not a description of the user interface.
  25. How to create a conceptual model. Benefits of conceptualizing the design space early on are... and the core components are...
    Orientation – enabling the design team to ask specific kinds of questions about how the conceptual model will be understood by the targeted users. Open-mindedness – preventing the design team from becoming narrowly focused early on. Common ground – allowing the design team to establish a set of common terms that all can understand and agree upon, reducing the chance of misunderstandings and confusion arising later on.

    • Metaphors and analogies, Concepts, The relationships between concepts, The mappings between the concepts and the user experience.

    EXAMPLE: search engine -  «The metaphor invites comparisons between a mechanical engine, which has several parts working, and the everyday action of looking in different places to find something.»
    The computer interface is a conceptual metaphor of a writing desk. The original 1984 Mac OS desktop popularized the new graphical user interface. Users communicated with the computer not through abstract textual commands but rather using a metaphorical desktop that included icons of real life items with which the user was already familiar.
    • Break conventional and cultural rules - recycle bin ON TOP of the desktop?
    • ▸ Too constraining
    • ▸ Conflict with design principles
    • ▸ Forces users to only understand the system in terms of the metaphor
    • ▸ Literal translation of existing bad designs

    Limits designers’ imagination in coming up with new conceptual models
  28. Preece, Rogers and Sharp propose four conceptual models for interaction concepts, based on the type of activities users perform during the interaction. What are they?
    Another way of conceptualizing design space.

    • Instructing: issuing commands using keyboard and function keys and selecting options via menus. Users instruct the system and tell it what to do. Change font size.
    • Conversing: interacting with the system as if having a conversation. Siri.
    • Manipulating/Navigation: interacting with objects in a virtual or physical space by manipulating them

    Exploring/Browzer: moving through a virtual environment or a physical space, system provides structured information
  29. What is direct manipulation
    Physical actions/ button pressing instead of issuing commands with complex syntax. Users in control.
    • ▸ Novices can learn the basic functionality quickly
    • ▸ Experienced users can work extremely rapidly to carry out a wide range of tasks, even defining new functions
    • ▸ Error messages rarely needed
    • ▸ Users can immediately see if their actions are furthering their goals and if not do something else
    • ▸ Users experience less anxiety
    • ▸ Users gain confidence and mastery and feel in control
    • ▸ Not all tasks can be described by objects and not all actions can be done directly
    • ▸ Some tasks are better achieved through delegating rather than manipulating
    • – e.g., spell checking

    Moving a mouse around the screen can be slower than pressing function keys to do same actions
    • Strong focus on users (“we design for OTHER people”)
    • Making assumptions about the target audience more explicit / Medium for communication
    • Helps to focus and design for specific target audiences
    • ▸ Detailed and believable personas are NOT necessarily the right ones (e.g., give a FALSE feeling of knowing the users)
    • ▸ Temptation of personas reuse
    • ▸ Marketing vs product development: different needs
    • Low Fidelity Prototype (pen and paper)
    • Medium Fidelity Prototype (wireframe)
    • High Fidelity Prototype (working model, full website needs to be tested)
  35. What are functional and non functional requirements?
    • FUNCTIONAL - What should the product do? - scope of the product
    • NON FUNCTIONAL - How should this product behave?
    • Example: Milk carton. Func- contain liquid without leaking, nonfunc- give the user the feeling of buying something healthy
    In a heuristic evaluation, usability experts review your site’s interface and compare it against accepted usability principles. The analysis results in a list of potential usability issues.
    • - It can provide some quick and relatively inexpensive feedback to designers.
    • - You can obtain feedback early in the design process.
    • - Assigning the correct heuristic can help suggest the best corrective measures to designers.
    • - You can use it together with other usability testing methodologies.
    • - You can conduct usability testing to further examine potential issues.
    • ▸ Few ethical & practical issues to consider because users not involved.
    • ▸ Best experts have knowledge of application domain & users.
  38. Disadvantages Heuristic Evalutation
    • • It requires knowledge and experience to apply the heuristics effectively.
    • • Trained usability experts are sometimes hard to find and can be expensive.
    • • You should use multiple experts and aggregate their results.
    • • The evaluation may identify more minor issues and fewer major issues.
    • Experts have biases.
  39. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design by JAKOB NIELSEN
    - Visibility of system status, - Match between system and the real world, - User control and freedom, - Consistency and standards, - Error prevention, - Recognition rather than recall, - Flexibility and efficiency of use, - Aesthetic and minimalist design, - Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors, - Help and documentation
  40. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Visibility of system status
    The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.
  41. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Match between system and the real world
    The system should speak the users' language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.
  42. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - User control and freedom
    Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.
  43. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Consistency and standards
    Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.
  44. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Error prevention
    Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.
  45. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Recognition rather than recall
    Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.
  46. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Flexibility and efficiency of use
    Accelerators — unseen by the novice user — may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.
  47. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Aesthetic and minimalist design
    Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.
  48. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors
    Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.
  49. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Define - Help and documentation
    Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.
    • 1. Expert is told the assumptions about user population, context of use,
    • task details.
    • 2. One of more experts walk through the design prototype with the
    • scenario.
    • 3. Experts are guided by 3 questions:
    • • Will the correct action be sufficiently evident to the user?
    • • Will the user notice that the correct action is available?
    • • Will the user associate and interpret the response from the action
    • correctly?
    • 4. Record is compiled
    • • Assumptions about problems
    • • Notes about side issues/design changes
    • • Summary
    • 5. The design is revised
  51. Shneiderman's "Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design"
    • 1. Strive for consistency
    • 2. Enable frequent users to use shortcuts
    • 3. Offer informative feedback.
    • 4. Design dialog to yield closure.
    • 5. Offer simple error handling.
    • 6. Permit easy reversal of actions
    • 7. Support internal locus of control.
    • 8. Reduce short-term memory load.
  52. Data gathering - Contextual inquiry
    • — Context: see work place & what happens
    • — Partnership: user and developer collaborate
    • — Interpretation: observations interpreted by user and developer together
    • — Focus: project focus to help understand what to look for
    • ▸ Limited sampling and respondent availability - certain populations are more difficult to reach through online questionnaires
    • ▸ Possible cooperation problems - people get often survey requests - might decide to randomly fill in
    • ▸ Preventing individuals from responding more than once
    • A storyboard is a type of low-fidelity prototype: it consists out of a series of sketches (or scenes) and can be used to show how a user might progress through a task using the product under development. - They are often used in combination with scenarios. - They are mostly used in the beginning phases of projects. Storyboards graphically show a scenario in a comic book fashion. Like a comic book they use a mixture of words and pictures to tell a story and are great for really bringing a scenario to life.
    • Storyboards can be generated from scenarios
    • the way to sketch out the interaction. what you do with the products.
    show the steps that a user will go through for a given scenario. not as detailed as use cases or HTA.
    • stories about people doing stuff in the real world. An example might be someone using their mobile phone to find their way to an office for an interview, or someone booking an appointment to see their doctor about a sore throat. an informal narrative story, simple, ‘natural’,
    • personal, not generalisable
    List of steps. Captures the actor’s goal in using the system. Describes the normal course and alternative courses. actors the system use cases relationships. Again, not specific like HTA.
    breaking a task down into subtasks, then sub-subtasks and so on. These are grouped as plans which specify how the tasks might be performed in practice. focuses on physical and observable actions, and includes looking at actions not related to software or an interaction device. Specific!
  59. ANTHROPOMORPHISM. Define and give examples.
    when you give human like features to non-human objects, - talking peanuts? The paperclip from microsoft.
  60. According to Jesse James Garrett the main reason(s) of having requirements
    So you know what you’re building and what you are not building.
    • ▸ Reeves and Naas (1996) found that computers that flatter and praise users in education software programs -> positive impact on them
    • ▸ “Your question makes an important and useful distinction. Great job!”
    • ▸ Students were more willing to continue with exercises with this kind of feedback.
    • Research says that it reduces anxiety and makes people feel at ease, children especially can relate better
    ▸ How sincere would they think the computer was being? For example, after a system crash: “I’m really sorry I crashed. I’ll try not to do it again”. Can also be deceptive which can make someone anxious or feel stupid.
  63. One framework to guide evaluation is DECIDE. What does DECIDE stand for?
    • 1. Determine the overall goals that the evaluation addresses.
    • 2. Explore the specific questions to be answered.
    • 3. Choose the evaluation paradigm and techniques to answer the questions.
    • 4. Identify the practical issues that must be addressed, such as selecting participants.
    • 5. Decide how to deal with the ethical issues.
    • 6. Evaluate, interpret, and present the data.
  64. What is DEAF SPACE?
    An approach to architecture and design that is primarily informed by the unique ways in which Deaf people perceive and inhabit space.
  65. Things to consider when using designing for deaf space.
    Visual Range (transparent elevator), Color and Light (Defused lights to reduce eye strain), Reflection (reflective surfaces so one can see if someone is coming up behind them), Transparency (see light, shadow, movement outside a door)
  66. What is a prototype
    • can be sketches, storyboard, powerpoint, cardboard mock-up, ect.
  67. DIMENSIONS OF FIDELITY in prototyping
    • visual (sketched to styles)
    • functional (static to interactive)
    • content (lorem ipsum to real text)
    • ▸ Take too long to build
    • ▸ Emphasise superficial aspects
    • rather than content
    • ▸ Developers may be reluctant to
    • change
    • ▸ Can set expectations too high

    Just one bug can stop testing
  69. Two common types of compromise in prototyping
    • ‘horizontal’: provide a wide range of functions, but with little detail
    • ‘vertical’: provide a lot of detail for only a few functions
  70. Describe a wireframe and what it focuses on
    focus on what the screen does, not what it looks like, lacks typographic style, skeletal framework
  71. Other, less common, types of interactive technologies/ interfaces include...
    • - Virtual and augmented reality
    • - Wearables
    • - Shareable
    • - Robotic
    • - Tangible user interfaces
  72. Some examples of Advanced interaction techniques
    • - Speech
    • - Haptic
    • - Air-based gestures
    • - Brain-computer interfaces
  73. What is the purpose of virtual reality?
    To provide: “the illusion of participation in a synthetic environment rather than external observation of such an environment” (Gigante, 1993)
  74. DESIGN ISSUES within virtual reality
    • ▸ how to control interactions and movements (e.g. use of head and body movements)
    • ▸ how to interact with information (e.g. use of keypads, pointing, joystick buttons)
    • ▸ how to create a sense of presence
    • how to combine the use of VR and interaction with the physical world (awareness, safety, etc.)
  75. What is AUGMENTED REALITY and what are some design issues with it?
    ▸ Virtual representations are superimposed on physical devices and objects

    Some design issues: How to avoid distraction from ongoing task? How to align with real world objects?
  76. What are wearables and what are some design issues?
    Activity trackers, smart watches, smart fabrics, smart shoes, digital jewellery, etc.

    • Design Issues:
    • ▸ Comfort - needs to be light, small, not get in the way, fashionable, and preferably hidden in the clothing
    • ▸ Hygiene - is it possible to wash or clean the clothing once worn?
    • ▸ Ease of wear - how easy is it to remove the electronic gadgetry and replace it?
    • ▸ Usability - how does the user control the devices that are embedded in the clothing?
  77. What are some design issues with robots?
    • ▸ Should robots look like human beings (or animals) or look like and behave like robots?
    • ▸ Should the interaction be designed to enable people to interact with the robot as if it was another human being?
    • ▸ What interfaces are appropriate for pilots of Mobile Remote Presence (MRP) systems?
  78. What does TUI stand for? What does it mean and what are some design issues? Examples?
    Tangible User Interface.

    Sensor-based interaction, where physical objects, e.g., bricks, represent digital objects, and when a person manipulates the physical object/s, it makes an effect on digital objects.

    • Some design issues: - How to couple the physical action and digital effect? - What kind of physical artefacts to use?
    • Examples Osmo, Oree Stylograph.
  79. What are airbased gestures and what are some issues? Give an example.
    ▸ Cameras, sensors, and computer vision techniques are used to recognise body, arm and hand gestures (e.g. Kinect)

    Some issues: - How to make gesture recognition more accurate? - Does holding a control device feel more intuitive than controller free gestures?
  80. Define BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACES. Give an example. Some design issues?
    • Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) provide a communication pathway between a person’s brain waves and an external device, such as a cursor on a screen. Person is trained to concentrate on the task e.g. moving the cursor. 
    • EXAMPLE: EMOTIV headset thing
    • ISSUES: How to use BCI to support people with disabilities? - How to combine with other interaction techniques?
  81. Emotional Interaction:
    Describe expressive interfaces. What could be an issue with emoticons?
    Expressive interfaces - how the ‘appearance’ of an interface can affect users. Color, icons, sounds, graphical elements and animations are used to make the ‘look and feel’ of an interface appealing - Conveys an emotional state. Users have created a range of emoticons - compensate for lack of expressiveness in text communication.

    Emoticons - Possible miscommunication due to different designs of the same icon, think cross platform.
  82. Describe persuasive technologies. What type of computing system? What type of techniques?
    Interactive computing systems deliberately designed to change people’s attitudes and behavior (B.J. Fogg, 2003)

    A diversity of techniques now used to change what people do or think. Pop-up ads / warning messages / reminders / prompts / personalized messages / recommendations / Amazon 1-click
    • Behavior = M + A + T.
    • Motivation. Ability (mental or phyiscal). Triggers.
    • Example: Phone call. One could be motivated and have the physical ability to pick up the phone, but if they do not hear it ring, no trigger, they will not pick it up. If there is a trigger, it rings, but one is not motivated to pick it up or they will not. ect ect. The reward at the end is receiving the call and picking up.
  84. Is interactive or non-interactive technology more effective at changing a person's behavior?
    • Novel forms of interactive technologies that monitor, nag, or send personalized messages intermittently to a person - e.g., the combination of sensors and dynamically updated information
    • OR
    • Non-interactive methods such as the placement of warning signs, labels, or ads in prominent positions
  85. Norman, Ortony and Revelle model of emotion
    • Image Upload
    • Visceral, Behavioral, Reflective
  86. Define VISCERAL from the model of emotion
    The most immediate level of processing, in which we react to visual and other sensory aspects of a product that we can perceive before significant interaction occurs. Visceral processing helps us make rapid decisions about what is good, bad, safe, or dangerous.
  87. Define Behavioral from the model of emotion
    The middle level of processing that lets us manage simple, everyday behaviors, which according to Norman, constitute the majority of human activity. Behavioral processing can enhance or inhibit both lower-level visceral reactions and higher-level reflective responses, and conversely, both visceral and reflective processing can enhance or inhibit behavioral processing.
  88. Define Reflective from the model of emotion
    The least immediate level of processing, which involves conscious consideration and reflection on past experiences. This level of cognitive processing is accessible only via memory, not through direct interaction or perception. Through reflection we are able to integrate our experiences with designed artifacts into our broader life experiences and associate meaning and value with the artifacts themselves.
  89. What are the claims and implications of Norman, Ortony and Revells's model of emotion?
    • CLAIMS: Emotional state changes how we think.
    • Frightened or angry we focus narrowly, tense muscles, sweat. Less tolerant.
    • Happy and relaxed, less focused, more likely to look over minor problems, more creative.

    IMPLICATIONS: Should we create products that adapt to emotional states? When people feel angry should an interface be more attentive and informative than when one is happy? Is Norman right in saying that "Designers can get away with more" when designing leisurely products than those for serious tasks?
  90. PLEASURE MODEL. Jordon (2000) based on Tiger’s (1992) framework of pleasure. Includes the following:
    • (i) physio-pleasure
    • (ii) socio-pleasure
    • (iii) psycho-pleasure
    • (iv) ideo-pleasure (cognitive)

    Means of framing a designer’s thinking about pleasure, highlighting that there are different kinds
    investigates how information and communication technologies can be used to support learning and teaching, and competence development throughout life
  92. TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING and COGNITION. What is cognition? What are the two different types? Give examples.

    • is a state of mind in which we perceive, act, and react to events around us effectively and effortlessly (Norman, 1993). e.g. driving a car, reading a book, discussing…

    • ▸ involves Thinking, Comparing, and Decision making. e.g. learning, writing a book, designing…
    • ▸ Interacting with technology involves a number of cognitive processes
    • ▸ We need to take into account cognitive processes involved and cognitive limitations of users
    • ▸ It provides knowledge about what users can and cannot be expected to do
    • ▸ It helps to identify and explain the nature and causes of problems users encounter
  94. Define SYNCHRONOUS COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION. Example? What are some benefits and problems?
    Conversations are supported in real-time through voice and/or typing such as skype or video conferencing.

    • Benefits
    • - Not having to physically face people may increase shy people’s confidence
    • - Allows people to keep abreast of the goings-on in an organization without having to move from their office

    • Problems:
    • - Difficult to establish eye contact with images of others
    • - People can behave badly when behind the mask of an avatar
  95. Define ASYNCHRONOUS COMPUTER-MEDIATED COMMUNICATION. Example? What are some benefits and problems?
    Communication takes place remotely at different times such as email or texting.

    • ▸ Benefits include:
    • - Read any place any time
    • - Flexible as to how to deal with it
    • - Can make saying things easier

    • ▸ Problems include:
    • - Message overload
    • - False expectations as to when people will reply
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INFO262 Exam Interaction Design
2017-05-30 13:58:23
Interaction Design University IxD

Interaction Design Exam notes for class INFO262 University of Bergen
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