Lower limbs

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Author:
ebcross88
ID:
33189
Filename:
Lower limbs
Updated:
2010-09-07 11:14:05
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Anatomy muscles innervation function
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Description:
Lower limb muscle innervation and function
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  1. Tensor fascia lata M. function
    • Abduction, medial rotation, and flexion of the thigh.
    • Protects the knee joint.
  2. Tensor fascia lata M. innervation
    Superior gluteal N. (L4-L5)
  3. Gluteus maximus M. function
    • Powerful extensor of hip joint.
    • Lateral rotator.
    • Active in rising, sitting, and climbing.
  4. Gluteus maximus M. innervation
    Inferior gluteal N. (L5-S2)
  5. Gluteus medius/minimus M. function
    • Abduction, medial rotation of thigh.
    • Keeps pelvis level when opposing leg is raised.
  6. Gluteus medius/minimus M. innervation
    Superior gluteal N. (L5-S1)
  7. Piriformis M. function
    • Lateral rotator and abductor of the thigh.
    • Keeps femur head in acetabulum.
  8. Piriformis M. innervation
    Sacral plexus (S1-S2)
  9. Obturator internus M. function
    • Lateral rotator of the thigh when extended.
    • Abductor of the thigh when flexed.
    • Stronger than medial rotators.
    • Controls the balance.
  10. Obturator internus M. innervation
    L5-S1
  11. Superior/inferior gemellus M. function
    • Lateral rotator of the thigh when extended.
    • Abductor of the thigh when flexed.
    • Stronger than medial rotators.
    • Controls the balance.
  12. Superior gemellus M. innervation
    N. to Obturator int.
  13. Inferior gemellus M. innervation
    N. to quadratus femoris.
  14. Quadratus femoris M. function
    • Lateral rotator of the thigh when extended.
    • Abductor of the thigh when flexed.
    • Stronger than medial rotators.
    • Controls the balance.
  15. Quadratus femoris M. innervation
    N. to quadratus femoris
  16. Biceps femoris M. function
    • Long head: extension at hip.
    • Flexor and lateral rotator at knee joint.
    • *Short head may be absent*
  17. Biceps femoris M. innervation
    • Long head: tibial N. (L5-S2)
    • Short head: common peroneal N. (S1-S2)
  18. Semitendineous M. function
    • Extension at hip.
    • Flexion and medial rotation at knee.
  19. Semitendineous M. innveration
    tibial N. (L5-S2)
  20. Semimembraneous M. function
    • Hip extensor.
    • Knee flexor.
    • Medial rotator.
  21. Semimembraneous M. innervation
    tibial N.
  22. Adductor magus M. function
    • Powerful adductor.
    • Lateral rotator (part inserted to linea aspera)
    • Medial rotator at knee joint.
    • Extensor at hip joint.
  23. Adductor magnus M. innervation
    • tibial N. to the part inserted to linea aspera
    • obturator N. to the part inserted to adductor tubercle (puberty and conception)
  24. Adductor magnus M.
    Perforating arteries (3-4) usually pierce this muscle from deep femoral artery in anterior femoral region to posterior thigh region to give blood to the dorsal muscles.
    Adductor hiatus may be considered as the 5th hiatus, it contains the popliteal artery and vein.
  25. Plantaris M. function
    • Best plantar flexors.
    • Active in walking.
  26. Plantaris M., Soleus M., and Gastrocnemius M. innervation
    tibial N. (S1-S2)
  27. Achilles tendon (calcaneal tendon) is the most powerful tendon and important in walking.
  28. Tibialis posterior M. function
    • Active in plantar flexion.
    • Supination of the foot.
  29. Tibialis posterior M. innervation
    tibial N. (L4-L5)
  30. Flexor hallusis longus M. function
    • Active in plantar flexion.
    • Supination of the foot.
  31. Flexor hallusis longus M. innveration
    tibial N. (S1-S2)
  32. Flexor digitorum longus M.function
    • Active in plantar flexion.
    • Supination of the foot.
  33. Flexor digitorum longus M. innervation
    tibial N. (S1-S3)
  34. The tendon of tibialis posterior M., flexor hallusis longus M., and flexor digitorum longus M. pass beneath the flexor retinaculum.
  35. Popliteus M. function
    • Flexion of the knee.
    • Unlocking of the knee joint.
    • Protection of lateral meniscus.
  36. Popliteus M. innervation
    tibial N. (L4-S1)
  37. Peroneus longus/brevis M. function
    Strongest pronators of the foot.
  38. Peroneus longus/brevis M. innervation
    superficial peroneal N. (L5-S1)
  39. What passes through the suprapiriformis hiatus?
    Superior gluteal vessels
  40. What passes through the infrapiriformis hiatus?
    • Inferior gluteal vessels
    • Internal pudendal artery and vein
    • Pudendal N.
    • Posterior cutaneous N. of the thigh
    • Sciatic N.
    • N. to obturator internus

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