psy 108: ch 10

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psy 108: ch 10
2010-09-07 15:17:46

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  1. Gestures

    • Spontaneous mvmts of fingers, hands, & arms
    • Often accompanies our speech
    • Can sometimes help you remember the word you want to produce
    • When we produce a word we execute elaborate mvmts of the mouth & other parts of vocal system
    • May sometimes activate relevant info
  2. Gist
    Producing a sentence

    • Mentally plan this
    • Overall meaning of the message we intend to generate
    • Top-down
  3. Linearization problem
    Producing a sentence

    • Prob of transforming general thought/mental image & arranging words in an ordered, linear sequence
    • Usu speak rapidly & accurately but occasionaly find yourself struggling trying to describe several ideas simultaneously
    • While planning a writing assignment you resolve this
  4. Prosody
    Producing a Sentence

    • The "melody" of an utterance's intonation, rhythm, & emphasis
    • Must plan this during speech production
    • Can be used to clarify an ambiguous message
    • May reflect diff features of speaker/utterance: emotional state; whether it's a ?, statement, or command; sarcasm
  5. Slips-of-the-tongue
    Speech errors

    • Errors in which sounds/entire words are rearranged btwn 2/more diff words
    • Helpful b/c they reveal ppl's extensive knowledge abt the sounds, structure, & meaning of the lang they're speaking
    • 3 kinds: sound errors, morpheme errors, & word errors
    • Several forms: anticipation error, preservation error, & deletions
    • Occur more often when stimulus includes 2 consonants
    • Likely to create a word vs. a nonword
    • Seldom create a word that begins w/an unlikely letter sequence
    • Usu the errors occur across items from same category
    • Shows words we're currently pronouncing influenced by words we've already spoken & words we're planning to speak
  6. Narrative
    Producing discourse

    • Type of discourse in which someone describes a series of actual/fictional events conveyed in a time-related sequence & often emotionally involving
    • Storytellers have a specific goal that must be conveyed but don't completely preplan the org at beginning of story
    • Choose words carefully to present their own actions in a favorable light & try to make it more entertaining
    • Format is unusual--allows speaker to "hold the floor" for extended period in which speaker usu conveys 6 parts of narrative which tend to make it cohesive & well org'd
    • Time-related sequence; emotionally involving; goal to convey; words chosen carefully; entertaining
    • Structure: overview, summary of characters & setting; complicating action; point; resolution; final signal of completion
  7. Common ground
    Social context of speech

    • When conversationalists share similar background knowledge, schemas, & experiences necessary for mutual understanding
    • Important part of pragmatics
    • To guarantee convo coherence speakers need to collaborate to make certain they share common ground w/their convo partners
    • Speakers should: make sure their listeners are paying attention, avoid ambiguous statements, clarify misunderstandings
    • Use NV lang to clarify message
    • Convo partners become more skilled in comm'ing efficiently w/practice Lexical entrainment
    • Probs: speakers overestimate listeners' ability to understand message; speakers assume listeners need & want same things they do; time pressure
  8. Lexical entrainment
    Common ground

    • Pattern 2 comm'ers use when they create & adopt a standard term to refer to an obj
    • Ppl who work together can quickly & efficiently dvlp this [doctor-patient convos]
    • Fairly natural kind of pragmatic skill (shown in study of ppl w/diff lang's)
    • Speakers freq work collaboratively to agree on names they'll use in a convo
  9. Directive
    Social context of speech

    • Important topic of pragmatics
    • A sentence that requests someone to do something
    • The most polite require more words
    • Speakers often state them in a format that anticipates potential obstacles to compliance
    • Overly elaborate directives may seem insulting
    • Indirect request
  10. Indirect request

    • Stated like a request for info, even tho it's really a request for someone to do soemthing/stop doing something
    • [Teacher: "What are you laughing at?"]
  11. Self-efficacy
    Cognitive model of writing

    • Your own assessment of your capabilities in an area
    • Motivational factor of writing
  12. Working memory
    • The brief immediate memory for material we're currently processing
    • Our previous knowledge can help us chunk items together to aid this memory
    • Listeners rely on it more than readers (can re-scan the info)
    • Plays important role during reading: large working memory helps quickly process ambiguous sentences, read difficult passages, solve complex verbal probs, understand complicated sentences
    • Plays central role in cog approach to writing
    • Coordinates our ongoing mental activities
    • Phonological loop, Visuospatial sketchpad, central executive
    • Rehearsal: useful for maintaining items here
    • Decline in this the older you get
    • Stereotype threat: interferes w/this--esp on difficult tasks it reduces its capacity; thought suppression also reduces this
    • Neg info: strains thiss if prob involves denying the antecedent/consequent
  13. Phonological loop
    Cognitive model of writing

    • Stores limited # of sounds for short period of time in working memory
    • Ppl talk to themseleves as they generate sentences during writing which requires PL
  14. Visuospatial sketchpad
    Cognitive model of writing

    • Stores both visual & spatial info in working memory
    • Useful when writers try to visualize the order of the sections of a paper & need to include figures & graphs
  15. Central executive
    Cognitive model of writing

    • Part of working memory that integrates info from PL, VS, & episodic buffer
    • Plays role in attention, planning, & coordinating other cog activities
    • Active in virtually every phase of writing process
    • Its limited capacity makes writing esp challenging
  16. Prewriting
    Planning the writing assignment

    • Generate a list of ideas
    • 1st stage in planning to write
    • Difficult & strategic--much diff from many relatively auto lang tasks
    • Ppl differ in quality of ideas they generate during this phase: good writers spend more high quality time planning during this phase
  17. Bilingual
    • Person who actively uses 2 diff langs
    • Multilingual
    • Simultaneous bilingualism
    • Sequential bilingualism
    • Interlanguage
    • More than 1/2 ppl in world are at least somewhat bilingual
    • 2 predictors of success of learning 2nd lang: motivation & attitude toward the ppl
    • Advantages: more advanced in school (greater mental flexibility); they can comm in 2 langs; more expertise in 1st lang; more aware names assigned to concepts are arbitrary; selective attention to subtle aspects of a lang task; better at following complicated & changing instructions; creative; pragmatic aspects
    • Disadvantages: (minor) pronunciation; slower processing
    • Experience tip of the tongue effect more freq than monolinguals--greater total # of separate words in semantic memory
  18. Multilingual

    • Someone who uses more than 2 langs
    • Included in bilingual category
  19. Simultaneous bilingualism

    Learn 2 langs simultaneously during childhood
  20. Sequential bilingualism

    Person's native lang = 1st lang & nonnative lang they acquire = 2nd lang
  21. Interlanguage

    • New lang system that allows ppl to produce concepts, sentences, & discourse in the 2nd lang
    • Ppl don't learn a 2nd lang by simply imitating the new lang
  22. Metalinguistics

    • Knowledge abt the form & structure of lang
    • 1 advantage bilinguals have over monolinguals--they're more aware the names assigned to concepts are arbitrary
  23. Age of acquisition

    • Age at which you begin to learn a 2nd lang
    • Critical period hypothesis
    • General issue: do older ppl have more difficulty than younger in mastering a 2nd lang?--varies
    • Influences mastery of phonology: ppl who acquire 2nd lang earlier more likely to produce words like a native speaker
    • Doesn't seem to be related to lang skills when measuring vocab
    • Strongest controversy = grammar (experience in US schools & formal ed)--affects knowledge of grammar if the 2 langs are very diff from each other & speaker hasn't been educated in English
  24. Critical period hypothesis
    Age of acquisition

    • Your ability to acquire a 2nd lang is strictly limited to a specific period of your life
    • Proposes indiv's who've already reached a specific age (early puberty) will no longer be able to acquire a new lang w/native-like fluency
    • Research evidence doesn't support a clear-cut biologically based "deadline"
    • Many studies report a gradual decline in 2nd lang skills as a function of age of acquisition, but none show an abrupt drop at a certain age
  25. Phonology
    Age of acquisition

    • Sounds of a person's speech
    • Research suggests age of acquisition does influence the mastery of this
    • Ppl who acquire a 2nd lang during early childhood more likely to pronounce words like a native speaker of that lang vs. ppl who acquire it during adulthood more likely to have a foreign accent w/new lang
    • Fairly smooth decline w/age of acquisition (vs. abrupt drop)
  26. Translation
    Simultaneous interpreters

    • Process of translating from a text written in 1 lang into a 2nd written lang
    • VS. interpreting
  27. Interpreting
    Simultaneous interpreters

    • Process of translating from a spoken message in 1 lang to spoken lang into a 2nd spoken lang
    • 1 of most challenging linguistic tasks humans can perform--3 working memory tasks at same time