Chemistry

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Author:
ereim
ID:
33206
Filename:
Chemistry
Updated:
2010-09-08 13:34:34
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Chapter3 Acids Bases
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Chapter3 Acids and Bases
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  1. Substances that dissociate in water to produce hydrogen ions (H+) or hydronium ions
    Acids
  2. Certain soluble salts, principally sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium, that have the property of combining with acids to form neutral salts
    Alkalies
  3. Substances that dissociate in water produce hydroxide ions (OH−) hydroxyl ions
    Base
  4. The product of ionic concentrations, ([H+] [OH−]); at 25°C Kw = 1 × 10^-14
    Dissociation constant of water (Kw)
  5. The negative logarithm of the hydrogen concentration [H+] in moles/liter. Formula stated as: pH = −log [H+] or, [H+] = 10−pH
    pH
  6. The negative logarithm of the hydroxyl concentration [OH−] in moles/liter. Formula stated as: pOH = −log [OH−] or, [OH] = 10−pOH
    pOH
  7. A compound composed of positive and negative ions held together with an ionic bond
    Salt
  8. DEFINE the following terms
    a. Acid
    b. Base
    c. Salt
    d. pH
    • Acids are substances that dissociate in water to produce hydrogen ions (H+).
    • Bases are substances that dissociate and produce hydroxide ions (OH−) in water solutions
    • A salt is an ionic compound composed of positive ions and negative ions
    • pH negative logarithm of the hydrogen concentration
  9. DESCRIBE what happens when acids and bases are mixed in solution
    Acid and a Base will always produce Salt and Water
  10. STATE the formula for pH
    pH=-log([H+])
  11. Given 8.3 as the pH, DETERMINE if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral
    • Neutral is 7 in a range from 0 to 14.
    • 0 to 6.9 would be an acid
    • 7.1 to 14 would be a base
    • This is a base
  12. What is the result of reacting sulfuric acid and magnesium hydroxide
    • H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 > MgSO4 + 2H2O
    • Acid + Base > Salt + Water
  13. Give an example of an acid / base chemical reaction
    • H2SO4 + 2NaOH > Na2SO4 + 2H2O
    • Acid + Base > Salt + Water
  14. Write the acid / base reaction for phosphoric acid and sodium hydroxide
    • H3PO4 + 3NaOH > Na3PO4 + 3H2O
    • Acid + Base > Salt + Water
  15. What is the formula for pH and pOH
    • pH = -log [H+]
    • pOH = -log [OH-]
  16. What are the pH ranges for acidic, basic, and neutral
    • acidic: pH values less than 7
    • basic: pH values more than 7
    • neutral: pH equal to 7
  17. Calculate the pH and the pOH of a 0.9M solution of HcL
    • pH = -log [H+]
    • [H+]=0.9 mol/L
    • pH = -log(0.9) = 0.046
    • pOH = 14 - pH = 13.954
  18. Given a pOH of 8.9, what is the [OH-]
    • [OH-]=10-pOH
    • 10-8.9 = 1.259 x 10-9 mol / liter
  19. What is the pH of a 8 pOH solution
    • pH + pOH = 14
    • pOH=14 - pH
    • pOH = 14 - 8
    • pOH = 6

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