Micro Unit 1 Lecture

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theshackfam
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33208
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Micro Unit 1 Lecture
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2010-09-07 12:57:32
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Lecture Notes
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  1. Oppotunistic Pathogens
    Makes you sick if your immune system is weakened
  2. Obligatory Pathogen
    Always makes you sick
  3. List the 3 main domains we are working with
    • 1. Eukarya
    • a. Fungus
    • b. Helminths
    • c. Protista/Protozoa

    • 2. Bacteria
    • a. Bacteria

    • 3. Archaea
    • a. Archaea
  4. Characteristics of Bacteria
    • 1. Prokaryotic
    • 2. Unicellular
    • 3. Peptidoglycan Cell Walls
  5. Characteristics of Archaea
    • 1. Prokaryotic
    • 2. Unicellular
    • 3. Lack Peptidoglycan but DO have cell walls
    • 4. Live in extreme environments
  6. Characteristics of Fungi
    • 1. Eukaryotic Cells
    • 2. Molds and mushrooms are multicellular
    • 3. Yeasts are unicellular
    • 4. Chitin in cell walls
    • 5. Domain Eukarya
  7. Characteristics of Protozoa
    • 1. Eukayrotes
    • 2. Unicellular
    • 3. No cell wall
    • 4. Found in aquatic environments
    • 5. Most are motile
    • 6. Domain Eukarya
  8. Characteristics of Helminths
    • 1. Multicellular animal parasites (Parasitic Worms)
    • 2. Eukaryotic cells
    • 3. Multicellular
    • 4. No cell wall
    • 5. Domain Eukarya
  9. Characteristics of Viruses
    • 1. Obligate Pathogen
    • 2. "Acellular Akaryotic"
    • 3. Non-Living
    • 4. Consists of Nucleic Acid with Protein Coat
    • 5. Viruses are replicated only when they are in a living host cell
    • 6. No domain because they are not alive
  10. Simple Stains
    • 1. Highlights entire organism
    • 2. Give no differentiating info
    • 3. One stain used
  11. Differential Stain
    • 1. Highlights entire organism
    • 2. Gives differntiating info about organisms being stained based on outcome
    • 3. More than one type of stain used
  12. Acid Fast Stains
    Cell that is neither Gram Positive or Negative but instead has a waxy cell wall which isn't stained by gram staining process.

    Bacteria with waxy cell walls are acid positive and will stain hot pink

    Everything else is acid fast negative and will stain blue
  13. Compare Prokaryotes with Eukaryotes
    • Pro Euk
    • No Nucleus Nucleus
    • Circular Chrome Reg Chrome

    • No Histones Histone &
    • Non Histone

    • No Membrane Membrane
    • Bound Bound
    • Organelles Organells

    • Always have Does Not always
    • cell wall Have cell wall

    Binary Fission Mitosis/Meiosis
  14. Histone
    The protein DNA winds around
  15. Coccus
    Ball
  16. Bacillus
    Hotdog
  17. Spiral
    Spiral
  18. Name the bacteria shapes
    • Coccus
    • Bacillus
    • Spiral
  19. Name the cocci arrangements
    • 1. Diplo - OO
    • 2. Strepto - OOOOOOOOOOO
    • 3. Staphlo - OOOO
    • OOO
    • OOOOO

    Coccobacilli - Inbetween
  20. Vibrio
    One curve, looks like a comma
  21. Spirillia/Spirochete
    More than one curve
  22. Name the structures outside the cell
    • 1. Capsule
    • 2. Flagella
    • 3. Axial Filaments
    • 4. Fimbriae
    • 5. Conjugation Pili
  23. Capsule
    Location: Outermost Layer

    Function: Attachment Feature/Protection
  24. Flagella
    Location: Appendage sticking out of cell

    Function: Taxis/Motility

    Prokaryotes have flagella NOT cilia
  25. Axial Filaments
    Location: Under outer membrane - spirochete only

    Function: Motility
  26. Fimbriae
    Location: Appendage sticking out of cell

    Function: Attachment and in some cases movement (attach, pull, attch, pull...)
  27. Conjugation Pili
    Location: Appendage sticking out of cell

    Function: Exchange of genetic materials

    Gram neg only
  28. Contents of Gram Positive Cell Wall
    • Pepidoglycan (~ 90%) - Structure
    • Teichoic Acids - Transport
    • - Meshwork in cell wall where molecules attach to travel through the wall
  29. Contents of Gram Negative Cell Wall
    • LPS - Selective Permeability
    • Periplasm - Defense/Transport
    • - Space between lipid layers is filled with periplasm. It acts as a moat to prevent "things" from getting across. The goo is filled with toxins. Causes a spike in symptoms in the patients because the goo gets released into the body.
    • Porin - Transport
    • - Stuck in LPS
    • Peptidoglycan (~10%) - Structure
  30. Structures internal to cell wall
    • 1. Plasma Membrane
    • 2. Cytoplasm
    • 3. Nucleoid
    • 4. Plasmid
    • 5. Ribosomes
    • 6. Inclusions
    • 7. Endospores
  31. Plasma Membrane
    Location: Surrounds cytoplasm

    Function: Semi Permeable Membrane
  32. Cytoplasm
    Location: Fills inside of plasma membrane

    • Function: Storage
    • Provide Aqueous Environment
  33. Nucleoid
    Location: Whereever chromosomes are in the cytoplasm

    Function: Genetic information necessary for cell reproduction
  34. Plasmid
    Location:Within Cytoplasm

    Function: Extra chromosomal DNA that may aid in bacterial survival
  35. Ribosomes
    Location: Throughout Cytoplasm

    Function: Protein Synthesis
  36. Inclusions
    Location: Within cytoplasm

    Function: Reserve deposits of extra necessary materials
  37. Endospores
    Location: ONE within cytoplasm

    Function: "Resting" version of bacterial cell that is extremely durable and can survive adverse conditions
  38. 3 Good Bacteria and what they do...
    1. Saccharomyces exiguus - Sourdough Bread

    2. In sewage treatment they convert liquid and organic materials in carbon dioxide and other useful chemicals

    3. Decompose dead plants and return cardon dioxide to the atmosphere

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