Neurological tests

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  1. cerebral angioagraphy: purpose
    Indentifies aneurysms, vascular malformations, narrowed vessels
  2. cerebral angioagraphy: preparation and testing
    • Informed consent
    • Explain procedure-- Lie flat; dye injection into femoral artery by needle/catheter; fluoroscopy and radiologic films taken after injection

    • Well hydrated
    • Preprocedure sedation
    • Skin prep, chosen site shaved
    • Mark peripheral pulses
    • May experience feeling of warmth
    • and metallic taste when dye is injected
  3. cereral angiography: post-test nursing care
    • Neurological assessment every 15–30 minutes until vital signs are stable
    • Keep flat in bed 12–14 hours
    • Check puncture site every hour
    • Immobilize site for 6–8 hours
    • Assess distal pulses, color, and
    • temperature
    • Observe symptoms of complications, allergic response to dye, puncture site hematoma
    • Force fluids, accurate intake and output
  4. lumbar puncture (LP): purpose
    Insertion of needle into subarachnoid space to obtain specimen, relieve pressure, inject dye or medications
  5. lumbar puncture (LP): preparation and testing
    • Explain procedure
    • Informed consent
    • Procedure done at bedside or in
    • treatment room
    • Positioned in lateral recumbent fetal
    • position at edge of bed
  6. lumbar puncture (LP): post-test nursing care
    • Neurological assessment every 15–30 minutes until stable
    • Position flat for several hours
    • Encourage PO fluid to 3,000 mL
    • Oral analgesics for headache
    • Observe sterile dressing at insertion site for bleeding or drainage
  7. electroencephalogram (EEG): purpose
    Records electrical activity of brain
  8. electroencephalogram (EEG): preparation and testing
    • Explain procedure
    • Procedure done by technician in a quiet room
    • Painless
    • Tranquilizer and stimulant medications withheld for 24–48 hours pre-EEG
    • Stimulants such as caffeine, cola, and tea, cigarettes withheld for 24 hours pre-EEG
    • May be asked to hyperventilate 3–4 minutes and watch bright, flashing light
    • Meals not withheld
    • Kept awake night before test
  9. electroencephalogram (EEG): post-test nursing care
    • Help client remove paste from hair
    • Administer prescribed medication withheld before EEG
    • Observe for seizure activity in seizure-prone clients
  10. encephalography: purpose
    Evaluates brain structure through sound waves
  11. encephalography: preparation and testing
    Explain procedure—hand-held transducer used to record sound waves
  12. encephalography: post-test nursing care
    none
  13. computed tomography (CT): purpose
    Detects hemorrhage, infarction, abscesses, tumors
  14. computed tomography (CT): preparation and testing
    • Informed consent
    • Explain procedure
    • Painless
    • Immobile during exam
    • If contrast dye used, may experience flushed, warm face, and metallic taste during injection
  15. computed tomography (CT): post-test nursing care
    • Assess for allergic responses to contrast dye (e.g., rash, pruritus, urticaria)
    • Encourage PO fluids
  16. mylogram: purpose
    Visualizes spinal column and subarachnoid space
  17. mylogram: preparation and testing
    • Informed consent
    • Explain procedure
    • NPO for 4–6 hours before test
    • Obtain allergy history
    • Phenothiazines, CNS depressants, and stimulants withheld for 48 h prior to test
    • Table will be moved to various positions during test
  18. mylogram: post-test nursing care
    • Neurologic assessment every 2–4 hours
    • When metrizamide water-soluble dye used, head should be raised 30-45° for 3 hours
    • Oral analgesics for headache
    • Encourage PO fluids
    • Assess for distended bladder
    • Inspect injection site
    • Assess for allergic responses to contrast dye (e.g., rash, pruritus, urticaria)
  19. positron emission tomography (PET scan): purpose
    Used to assess metabolic and physiological function of brain; diagnose stroke, brain tumor, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, head injury
  20. positron emission tomography (PET scan): preparation and testing
    • Client inhales or is injected with radioactive substance, then is scanned
    • Tell client may experience dizziness,headache
    • Teach relaxation exercises
  21. positron emission tomography (PET scan): post-test nursing care
    none

Card Set Information

Author:
wasdo
ID:
332122
Filename:
Neurological tests
Updated:
2017-06-09 20:04:18
Tags:
nclex
Folders:
nclex
Description:
neurological tests. definitions, indications, prep, etc.
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