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  1. Upper Respiratory tract
    • Nose
    • nasal cavity
    • pharynx
    • epiglottis
    • Have goblet cells covered in slimy glycoprotiens called mucous.
  2. Goblet cells
    Produce mucus which collects bacteria and airborne partials for removal via mucocillary escalator.
  3. What are the secondary lymphoid tissue that are located so they come into contact with mucous from URT.
    tonsils
  4. Rhinitis
    Infrection by viruses or bacteria. Creates a runny nose
  5. 6 normal microbiota of URS
    • Staphylococcus
    • Corynebacterium
    • Moraxella
    • Haemophilus
    • Bacteroides
    • Streptococcus
  6. Strep Throat
    • Bacteria.
    • Causative agent: Streptococcus pyogenes, Beta-hemolytic 
    • Signs & Symptoms: Sore red throat, often with white, pus follicles on tonsils or back of throat, tenderness of lymph nodes of throat
    • Epidemiology: direct contact and droplet infection
    • Treatment:  antibiotics
    • Other: untreated cases can subsequently produce rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis in some patients
  7. Diptheria
    • BACTERIA
    • Causative agent: Corynebacterium diptheriae 

    Signs & Symptoms: fever, fatigue, and malaise; often with a white pseudomembrane forms on the tonsils

    Pathogenesis:   Primarily droplet transmission, upper respiratory infection; exotoxin (A-B toxin) is released and absorbed by the body; toxin kills cell by blocking protein synthesis

    Epidemiology:   inhalation of droplets; direct contact with patient; indirect contact with fomites

    Treatment:  antitoxin; antibiotics to prevent transmission

    Prevention: toxoid vaccine, childhood series w/periodic adult boosters
  8. PINK EYE
    CONJUNCTIVITIS
    • BACTERIA
    • Causative agents: Haemophilus influenzae & Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Signs & Symptoms:

    1) increased tears, red & swollen conjunctiva, sensitivity to light, large amounts of pus

    2) Severe earache, sometimes producing vomiting; sometimes fever

    3) Facial pain and pressure in sinus area, headache, severe malaise, thick green nasal discharge & sometimes pus and blood

    Pathogenesis: direct contact and droplet infection of eyes or nose

    Epidemiology: carriers can reach 80% in the absence of disease; virulence of bacteria, crowding, and levels of respiratory viruses are all important factors.

    Treatment:  strain specific antibiotic drops for pink-eye; amoxicillin for the other two (decongestants and antihistamines are not recommended)

    Other: Earache is common between 2 mos and 5 years, when most become immune to H. influenzae. Sinusitis typically occurs on older children and adults.

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
332372
Filename:
chpt21
Updated:
2017-06-20 21:37:31
Tags:
BEM
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Description:
BACTERIAL
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