BACTERIAL INFECTIONS OF THE LRS
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Causative agent of Pneumococcal pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae, capsulated
Signs and symptoms of Pneumococcal pneumonia
Cough, fever, single shaking chill; rust-colored sputum from degraded blood; shortness of breath; chest pain.
Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal pneumonia
Inhalation of bacteria; colonization of aveoli; incites inflammatory response; plasma, blood, and inflammatory cells fill the aveoli; pain from nerve involvement.
Epidemiologly of Pneumococcal pneumonia
High carrier rates; increased rates from transient or chronic immunocompromised states (including infection by other respiratory viruses) that impair mucocilliary escalator. Affected patients can become dusky in color; untreated patients that survive often regain normal color and their temperature drops after 7-10 days.
Treatment of Pneumococcal Pneumonia
Antibiotics. Vaccine raised to 23 capsule antigens available
Causative agent of Pertussus (whooping cough)
Signs and symptoms of Pertussus (whooping cough)
runny nose followed by a number of days of 1-2 minute bouts of violent coughing (with long intervals of no coughing); fever; excessive mucous; vomiting, possible convulsions
Pathogenesis of Pertussus
upper respiratory (tracheobronchial); A-B-type exotoxin produces death of epithelial cells
inhalation of droplets; older children have milder symptoms (very serious disease in infants/small children)
Treatment of Pertussus
antibiotics if given before coughing starts; acellular vaccine for infants and children (DTaP). On rise here in MI this year.
Causative agent of TB
Signs and symptoms of TB
Chronic fever; weight loss; cough; sputum production
Pathogenesis of TB
lower respiratory specific; colonization of aveoli incites inflammation; ingestion by macrophages follows, and they are infected, and carry the bacterium to the lymph nodes, lungs and other body tissues; tubercle bacilli multiply; granulomas form (via delayed hypersensitivity).
Epidemiologly of TB
inhalation of airborne organisms; latent infections can return. Recent outbreaks of completely resistant
Treatment of TB
two or more antitubercular medications given simultaneously long term; DOTS; BCG vaccination (outside of US); TB test used to give early treatment.
DOTS: Stands for Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course
DOTS is a strategy used to reduce the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases. In DOTS, healthcare workers observe patients as they take their medicine. Left alone, many people with tuberculosis fail to take all their medication and contribute to the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course.
Responsible for walking pneumonia
- cuz of e coli.
- will destroy your lung and turn flem red.
- Cause tissue death and possible sepsis.
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