Human Growth Ch2

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Human Growth Ch2
2010-09-07 16:21:12
Human growth development

note on ch 2 human growth
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  1. Human Development
    Human development is the study of processes of change and stability throughout the life span
  2. 3 Domains/Types of Development
    • Physical – growth of body, sensory capabilities, motor skills, health
    • Cognitive– mental ability, learning, attention, memory, language
    • Psychosocial–emotions, personality, social relationships
  3. Social Construction
    concept or practice that may appear natural but is an invention of a particular culture or society
  4. Culture
    • a society or groups total way of life – all learned behaviors
    • passed on from parents to children - customs, traditions, beliefs, values, language
  5. Baltes – Seven principles of life-span development

    1. Development is lifelong

    2. Development is multidimensional –biological & social develop at different rates

    3. Development is multidirectional – gain in one area, loose in another (adults)

    4. Relative influence of biology and culture shift over the lifespan – biological abilities weaken with age but cultural ability (education, relationships) grows

      • Development involves changing resource
      • allocations – childhood resources go to growth – old age to regulation of loss

    5. Development shows plasticity –abilities can be increased with training and practice

    6. Development is influenced by the historical and cultural context – the time and place we live

  6. Describe
    Intervein – cause change
  7. Theory
    set of logically related concepts that seek to describe and explain development and predict what kinds of behavior might occur in different conditions – organize and explain data
  8. Hypothesis
    possible explanation for phenomena – used to predict outcomes of research
  9. 5 Major Theories
    • 1. Psychoanalytical
    • 2. Learning
    • 3. Cognitive
    • 4. Contextual
    • 5. Evolutionary
  10. Psychoanalytic
    • Freud phychosexual – behavior controlled my unconscious urges – reactive
    • Erikson phychosocial – personality is influenced by society –

    • develops through crises – Active

  11. Learning –
    Behaviorism (traditional learning theory)(Pavlov, skinner, Watson) – people are responders –reactive

    Social Learning – children learn in social context by watching others – Active and reactive
  12. Cognitive
    • Piaget congnitive stage – changes in thought occur between infancy and adolescence – children are active initiators of development – active
    • Vygotsky sociocultural – social interaction is central to cognitive development – active

    Information-processing – human beings are processers of symbols – active
  13. Contextual
    Bronfenbrenners bioecological – development is interaction between developing person and surroundings – from Microsystems to chronosystems
  14. Evolutionary
    Bowlby attachment theory – Humans have adaptive mechanism to survive – critical and sensitive period of development – evolutionary and biological bases for behavior – predisposition toward learning
  15. Research Methods
    • Qualitative research – measurable data
    • Quantitative research – nonnumeric al data
  16. Scientific Method
      1. Identifying a problem

    • Hypothesis
    • Collect data
    • Analyze data
    • Tentative conclusions
    • Disseminating findings
  • Data Collection
    • Self – report – diaries, interviews, questionares
    • Naturalistic observations – watch people in normal settings
    • Laboratory observation – watch people in lab
    • Behavioral and performance measures – tested on abilities, skills,knowledge, physical response