pharm test 2

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  1. define asthma
    shortness of breath and wheezing
  2. define COPD
    respiratory disease caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis
  3. define bronchitis
    irritation of respiratory tract from cigs and pollutants
  4. define emphysyma
    • destruction of alveolar walls
    • irreversible lung damage
  5. define catecholamines
    • NE, EPI and Dopamine
    • ANS(SNS)
  6. catecholamines are metabolized by
    MAO and COMT
  7. adrenergics
    are drugs that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system.(NE and EPI)
  8. adrenergic blockers
    block the effects of the adrenergic neurotransmitter 

    • stop the effect of neurotranmitters by taking up the site at the receptors, thus blocking any room for the agonists to fit in.
  9. Cholinergic Drugs
    • ***Decrease HR, RR, BP, Temp
    • Constrict Pupils
    • Increase Peristalsis***
  10. Anticholinergic Drugs
    a substance that opposes or blocks the action of acetylcholine.
  11. Sympethetic Nervous System

    1) Structure
    2) Function
    3)NeuroT
    4) Receptor Sites
    • 1) Thoracolumbar
    • 2)fight or flight
    • 3)pre-gang=ACh
    •    post-g=NE/ACh
    •    adrenal= EPI, NE
    • 4) heart, large/small arteries and veins, smooth musc of gut and resp tract, liver, sweat glands, orgasm
  12. Parasympathetic Nervous System

    1) Structure
    2) Function
    3)NeuroT
    • 1) craniosacral
    • 2) rest and digest
    • 3)pre and post g= ACh
  13. ACh is inactivated by
    acetylcholinesterase
  14. Adrenergic

    - nickname
    -MOA
    -can induce response in 3 ways
    • -sympathomimetic
    • -acts like NE
    • - direct, indirect and dual
  15. NE
    mobilize the brain and body for action
  16. cholergenic

    -nickname
    -MOA
    -ways to induce response
    • -parasympathomimetic
    • -mimics ACh
    • -direct and indirect
  17. cholergenicic

    1) direct acting
    2) indirect acting
    • 1) binds to cholinergic receptor
    • 2) anticholinesterase, makes more ACh available at receptor by blocking AChE in synaptic cleft
  18. adrenergic

    1) Direct
    2)Indirect
    3)Dual
    • 1) binds to R and cause physio response
    • 2) release of catecholamine from nerve end
    • 3) bind to R and release neuroT from nerve end
  19. adrenergic blockers

    1) nickname
    2) MOA
    • 1) sympatholytic
    • 2) alpha and beta blockers are antagonists, they bind to adrenergic receptors and block/inhibit stimulation of SNS
  20. alpha and beta blockers block SNS stimulation by

    1)
    2)
    • 1) directly competing w/ NE (competitive)
    • 2) forming covalent bond w/ alpha adrenergic receptors to cause receptors to be less receptive to EPI or NE (non competitive)
  21. cholinergic blockers

    1) nickname
    2) MOA
    • 1) parasympatholytic, anticholinergic
    • 2) block ACh

    competitive antagonists at muscarinic receptors of PSNS
  22. describe Beta-1 adrenergic drugs
    inotropic: increase/decrease force of myocardial contraction

    chronotropic: increase/decrease heart rate

    dromotropic: increase/decrease speed of electrical conduction through the heart
  23. adrenergic drug uses
    • -narcolepsy and ADHD
    • - bronchodialation
    • - reduce pressure for glaucoma
    • -nasal decongest
    • - conjunctiva relief
    • -increase BP
  24. adrenergic side effects

    1)Alpha
    2)Beta
    1) headache,insomnia, vasoconstrict, dry mouth, nausea

    2) tremor, headace, dizzy
  25. Adrenergic threats
    seizures and hypertension
  26. adrenergic agonist
    epinephrine
  27. Alpha-1 adrenergic agonist
    • ephedrine
    • phenylephrine
  28. beta-1 adrenergic agonist
    dobutamine
  29. beta 2 adrenergic agonist
    • albuterol
    • formoterol
    • terbutaline
    • salmeterol
  30. Alpha blocker uses
    • -treat hypertension, vascular headache,pheochromocytoma, PVD, raynauds disease
    • -cause vasocontrict
  31. alpha blocker side effects
    nausea,diarhea, orthostatic hypertension, tachy, dizzy
  32. alpha-1 adrenergic blocking
    • prazosin
    • terazosin
    • doxazosin
  33. hint: alpha 1 adrenergic blockers
    end in "zosin"
  34. nonselective blockers can cause
    bronchial and vaso constriction
  35. beta blocker uses
    • -treatment of hypertention, dysrhythmia, open angle glaucoma, migrane, mitral valve prolapse
    • -protect heart after MI
  36. beta blocker side effects
    NVD, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, thrombo
  37. if pt has asthma or CAD which drugs would you give cautiously
    beta blockers
  38. nonselective beta blockers
    • nadolol
    • propranolol
    • timolol
  39. selective beta 1 blockers
    • atenol
    • metoprolol
  40. hint: beta blockers
    end in "lol"
  41. cholinergenic direct acting uses
    • treat glaucoma
    • decrease intraocular pressure
  42. cholinergenic indirect acting uses
    diagnosis and treatment of myasthenia gravis, antidote to cure type muscle relaxants
  43. cholinergic side effects
    blur vision, sweat, flush, excess salivation, bronchoconstric
  44. s & s of cholinergic poisioning
    • S- salivate and sweat
    • L- lacrimation
    • U urinary incontinence
    • D- diareha
    • G- GI cramp
    • E- emesis
  45. antidote for cholinergic poisioning
    atropine
  46. cholergenic direct acting drugs
    • acetylcholine
    • pilocarpine
    • bethanechol
  47. cholinergic indirect acting drugs
    neostigmine
  48. cholenergic blocking drug uses
    • -treat parkinsons, dysrhythmia, peptic ulcer, relex neurogenic bladder and incont
    • - pre op
    • - bronchospasms, asthma and COPD
  49. cholenergic blocking side effects
    dry mouth, constipate, tachy, dizzy, N&V
  50. oldest anticholinergic agents are
    atropine and scopolamine
  51. cholenergic blocking drugs

    1) Belladonna Alkaloids
    2) Synthetic
    • 1) atropine
    • 2) dicyclomine and ipratopium
  52. ganglion stimulants
    stimulate nicotinic 1 receptors on ganglia
  53. ganglionic blocking agents
    inhibit nerve transmission at nicotinic receptors
  54. ganglionic blocking uses
    potent antihypertensive but limited use because of extreme adverse effects
  55. Centrally reacting skeletal muscle relaxants

    1) MOA
    2) Uses
    • 1) unknown
    • 2) relaxtion of spastic muscle
  56. Centrally reacting skeletal muscle relaxants drug list
    • cyclobenzaprine
    • carisoprodol
    • methocarbamol
    • orphenadrine citrate
    • metaxalone
  57. peripherally/direct reacting skeletal muscle relaxants

    1) MOA
    2)Uses
    • 1) normal end plate is blocked
    • 2) treat spastic diseases(MS), cerebral palsy and spinal cord injury
  58. peripherally/direct reacting skeletal muscle relaxants

    ways the normal end plate function is blocked
    • 1) depolarizing nicotinic receptor agonist mimic ACh and block muscle contraction
    • 2) non depolarizing agents block agonist,ACH from binding to nicotinc recptor
    • 3) direct muscle relaxants block release of Ca2 by blocking R in SR.
  59. peripherally acting drug

    1) depolarizing
    2) non depolarizing
    3) Direct
    • 1) succinylcholine
    • 2) curare and rocuronium bromide
    • 3)dantrolene
  60. 3 classifications of anti-parkinsons drugs
    • 1) anti cholinergic agents
    • 2) dopaminergic
    • 3)monoamine oxidase B inhibitor
  61. anticholinergic agents for anti Parkinson drugs

    1) MOA
    2) Drugs
    • 1) block effects of ACh. cross BBB.
    • 2) benztropine and trihexyphenidyl
  62. Dopaminergic anti Parkinson drugs

    1) MOA
    2)Drugs
    • 1) major effect of akinesia(difficulty or lack of ability to initiate muscle movement
    • 2)
    • levodopa
    • levodopa-carbidopa
    • bromocriptine
    • pramipexole
  63. monoamine oxidase b inhibitor anti Parkinson drug

    1) MOA
    2)drugs
    • 1) irreversibly inhibits monoamine oxidase B, preventing breakdown of dopamine
    • 2) selegiline
  64. myasthenia gravis drugs

    1) MOA
    2) classification
    3) drugs
    • 1) block AChE in synaptic cleft which inhibits the reuptake of ACh back into nerve terminal = increase levels of ACh in synaptic cleft
    • 2) Anticholinesterase
    • 3) neostigmine
  65. define Parkinson's disease
    • -progressive disease of the CNS.
    • -tremors at rest, bradykinesia, forward flex.
    • -excess of cholergenic activity from an imbalance ofACh and dopamine
    • - increase ACH
    • -decrease dopamine
  66. define myasthenia gravis
    • -progressive, incurable, autoimmune
    • - sk. muscle weakness and chronic fatigue
    • -lack of ACh
  67. define histamine
    found in mast cells and basophilic WBC in lungs, GI and skin
  68. two receptors that receive histamines
    1) H1 on blood ves, bronchiolar sm. musc, and intestinal sm. musc

    2) H2 in stomach, heart, blood ves and uterine
  69. effects of histamine on body

    1) BP
    2)HR
    3)Bronchioles
    4)Intestines
    5)Skin Caps
    6) Gastric acid secretion
    • 1) decreased
    • 2) increased
    • 3) contrict
    • 4) contract
    • 5) redness,edema,itch
    • 6) increased
  70. anti allergic agents(mast cell stabilizers)

    1) MOA
    -mast cells can be prevented from releasing their contents or the H1 receptors can be blocked from interacting with histamine
  71. antihistamic agents

    1) MOA
    • -used to relieve acute reactions in which histamine has already been released
    • -block histamine from interfacing with its H1 receptors
  72. first generation
    cause sedation
  73. second generation
    do not cause sedation
  74. antihistamines uses
    • allergic reactions
    • induce sleep
    • relieve motion sickness
    • anti emetics
    • cold remidies
  75. decongestants

    1) MOA
    • -vasoconstrictors(stimulate alpha receptors in sm. musc)
    • -reduce blood flow to mucous membranes
    • -decrease swelling
    • - ofton combined with antihistamines
  76. chemical mediatiors responsible for asthma
    • histamines
    • prostaglandins
    • leukotrines
  77. bronchodialator drugs used  in asthma

    classifications
    • 1) Beta-adrenergic drugs
    • 2) Xanthine Derivatives
    • 3)anti-cholinergenic
  78. major classifications of drugs used to treat asthma
    • -bronchodialators
    • -steroids
    • -leukotriene antag
    • -mucolytics
    • -expectorants

Card Set Information

Author:
ChelseaL
ID:
332381
Filename:
pharm test 2
Updated:
2017-06-24 19:23:39
Tags:
pharmacology
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Description:
pharm
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