Test 1

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Author:
Matttmbrlk09
ID:
33249
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Test 1
Updated:
2010-10-03 23:25:56
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Neuroscience
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Chapters 1, 2 & 3
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  1. Amygdala (function and location)
    • Function: plays a role in emotion, strongly in fear
    • Location: located deep within the medial temporal lobe of the brain
  2. What structures are developed from the telencephalon during neural development? What is this collective area called?
    • The "telencephalon" refers to the embryonic structure, from which the mature "cerebrum" develops. It is comprised of:
    • Cerebral cortex
    • Amygdala
    • Hippocampus
    • Basal ganglia
    • Striatum
    • Septum
  3. What structure did the mesencephalon give rise to?
    Midbrain which is comprised of the tectum, tegmentum, and the cerebral peduncles.
  4. The hindbrain can be split into two parts: the myelencephalon and the metencephalon. What do these structures give rise to during the prenatal development? What are these regions responsible for and where are they located?
    • medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum.
    • medulla oblongata: lower half of the brain stem; is responsible for autonomic functions (blood pressure, digestion, etc)
    • pons: literally meaning "bridge" in Latin, is superior to the medulla and inferior to the midbrain; contains nuclei that relay signals from the cerebrum to the cerebellum, along with nuclei that deal primarily with sleep, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, hearing, equilibrium, taste, eye movement, facial expressions, facial sensation, and posture
    • cerbellum: located inferior to the occipital lobe of the brain; responsible for motor control, attention, language, and fear and pleasure responses.
  5. Hippocampus (location and function)
    Fornix (function)
    • Function: part of the limbic system, plays a role in long term memory and spatial navigation
    • Location: inside the medial temporal lobe, inferior to the cortical surface
    • Fornix: connects hippocampus to the hypothalamus
  6. Hypothalamus (function and location)
    • Function: regulation of consciousness, sleep and alertness - circadian rhythm. also connects NS to the endocrine system.
    • Location: inferior to the thalamus and superior to the brain stem; ventral part of the diencephalon
  7. Important Sulci: Central Sulcus, Silvian (lateral) Fissure, Longitudinal fissure - locations
    Important Gyri: Pre-central gyrus, Post central gyri, Temporal lobe
  8. Glutamate is what type of neurotransmitter, is excitatory or inhibitory, and plays a role in what?
    Amino Acid, excitatory, plays a role in learning and memory
  9. Aspartate is what type of neurotransmitter, is excitatory or inhibitory, and plays a role in what?
    Amino Acid, excitatory, plays a role in fatigue
  10. Glycine is what type of neurotransmitter, is excitatory or inhibitory, and plays a role in what?
    Amino acid, inhibitory, plays a role in spinal reflexes & some motor functions
  11. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is what type of neurotransmitter, is excitatory or inhibitory, and plays a role in what?
    Amino Acid, inhibitory, involved in motor behavior
  12. Dopamine is what type of neurotransmitter, where is it localized, and plays a role in what?
    Monoamine, is localized in the Substantion nigra, and plays a role in movement
  13. Norepinephrine is what type of neurotransmitter, from where is it released, and plays a role in what?
    Monoamine (unique: both NT and hormone), is released from the adrenal medulla as a hormone (sup. kidney), plays a role in arousal/awakefulness
  14. Epinephrine is what type of neurotransmitter, is released from where, and plays a role in what?
    Monoamine (unique: both NT and hormone), is released from the adrenal medulla as a hormone (sup. kidney), plays a role in arousal/awakefulness
  15. Seratonin is what type of neurotransmitter and plays a role in what?
    Monoamine, plays a role in memory and emotion
  16. Acetycholine is what type of neurotransmitter, is localized where, and plays a role in what? Bonus: With what disease is acetycholine associated?
    Monoamine, localized in both CNS and PNS, released as a neuromuscular junction. Bonus: Alzheimer's disease
  17. Oxytocin is what type of neurotransmitter and plays a role in what?
    Peptide, plays a role in sexual stimulation/arousal
  18. Vasopressin is what type of neurotransmitter and plays a role in what?
    Peptide, homeostasis (also known as an anti

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