Pharm exam 3

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  1. Bacteria are classified by
    • Shape
    • stain
    • o2
  2. the propagation of MO on various media
    Culture and sensitivity
  3. antibiotics are either
    Bactericidal or bacteristatic
  4. antibiotics that are bactericidal
    • Penicillin 
    • cephalosporin
    • vancomycin
    • aminoglycide
    • fluroquinoles
    • flagyl
  5. antibiotics that are bacteristatic
    • Macrolides
    • lncomycins
    • tetracyclines
    • chloromycetin
    • sulfonomide
  6. new or secondary infection from an organism different from what cause initial infection
    Super infection
  7. Empiric therapy
    Use ab to treat infection before organisms have be id
  8. prophylactic therapy
    To protect a person from an attack from which has been or might be exposed to
  9. cross sensitivity
    If your allergic to one your probably allergic to the other
  10. cross sensitivity occurs between
    Penicillin and cephalosporins
  11. an adverse effect of penicillin
    Anaphylactic shock
  12. adverse effects

    1) otoxicity
    2) nephrotoxicity
    3) hepatotoxicity
    4) bone marrow suppression
    • 1) tinnitus
    • 2) abd kidney function 
    • 3) elevated liver enzymes 
    • 4) anemia thrombocytopenia leukopenia
  13. aminglycosides areknown for two adverse reactions
    Otoxicity and nephrotoxicity
  14. sulfonomides are used to treat
    • Uti
    • nocardosis(lung)
    • burn
  15. A major side effect of sulfonomide is___ and is treated w ____
    • Crytaluria( kidney stone)
    • drink lots of water
  16. Rifampin side effect
    Red/orange discoloration of urine feces saliva sputum sweat tears
  17. If patient responds positively to an anti TB test
    • Improved chest x ray
    • (-) sputum
    • decreasefever increased energy
  18. Tetracyclines have a tendency to ____ so don't eat _____
    • Chelate
    • dairy
  19. define chelate
    bind w metallic ions
  20. why should tetracyclines not be given to children under 8
    deposit in forming teeth
  21. Anti-Protozoa are used to treat
    • Ambiasis
    • toxoplasmosis
  22. which parasite causes malaria
    Plasmodium
  23. anti malarial side effects
    • Alopecia 
    • visual disturbances
  24. what type of drug is flagyl
    Antibacterial and anti protozal
  25. Flagyl can treat
    • Amebiasis
    • trichmonas
    • bone infection
    • brain absces
    • cns 
    • bacteroa
    • uti
    • aapmc
  26. flagyl is not ____
    An antihelmth or antifungal
  27. Vermont can cause
    • Diarrhea 
    • gi stress
  28. Amphoercin b can be administered ____ and used to treat ____
    • Parenterally
    • systemic fungal infections
  29. applied on living tissue
    bacteriostatic
    Antiseptics
  30. non living agents
    bacreicidal
    Disenfectants
  31. Most common nosocomial infection
    Uti
  32. Define the ELISA and western blot
    Used to detect the antibodies to HIV but not the virus

    western blot is confirmatory test
  33. What is official diagnosis of AIDS
    T helper count drops below 200 cells per ml
  34. Define immunosuppressant
    • Depress immune system 
    • organ transplant patient
  35. define immunodulators
    • Boost immune system 
    • patients recieving chemo
  36. Interleukins
    • -Immunodulators
    • -capillary lead system
    • - stimulate killer t cell, NK cell and bcell
  37. Colony stimulating factors are used in
    Cancer patients recieving chemotherapy
  38. chemo(anti-neoplastic meds) ___ bone marrow recovery
    decrease
  39. growth of microbes in different parts of body
    colonizations
  40. natural/passive immunity
    mother-fetus
  41. natural/active immunity
    getting the disease
  42. artificial/passive immunity
    injection of gammaglobulins
  43. artificial/active immunity
    vaccine or toxoids
  44. etiology factors for cancer
    • age
    • sex
    • genes
    • ethnicity
    • oncogenic virus
  45. benign tumors
    • encapsulated; do not metasize
    • similar to tissue of origin
    • slow growth
    • rarely come back
  46. malignant tumor
    • not encapsulated; do metasize
    • not similar to tissue
    • unpredictable growth
    • commonly return
  47. where do they develop?

    1) carcinomas
    2) sarcomas
    3) lymphomas
    • 1) epithelial tissue
    • 2) connective tissue
    • 3) lymphatic tissue
  48. define gompertzian growth kenetics
    • -growth of tumors
    • - early stages grows fast
    • -later stages the growth rate decreases
  49. chemo is most effective against
    small tumors because of their efficient blood supply
  50. removal of large tumors reduces
    the tumor cell burden
  51. what kind of chemo is most effective
    combination
  52. each drug should be ___ for the specific cancer
    active
  53. each drug should have a diff. site of action in the
    cell cycle
  54. each drug should have a differnet __ toxicity
    organ
  55. CCNS agents
    • alkylating agents
    • cytoxic antibodies
  56. CCS agents
    • antimetabolite
    • mitotic inhibit
    • topoisomerase
    • misc
  57. define super infection/ indirect toxicity
    antibiotic decreases or eliminates normal bacteria flora
  58. Penicillin

    1) produced from
    2) MOA
    • 1) fungus
    • 2) interfere w bacteria cell wall synthesis
  59. penicillin

    1) used to treat
    • g+ and g-
    • strep/staph/meningi coccal
    • syphilis, diphtheria, endocarditit
  60. what is resistant to penicillin
    cause of gonorreha
  61. natural penicillins

    1) effective against__ but not ___
    • 1) spirochets, g+, g- aerobic cocci;
    • penicillinase, g- bacilli
  62. penicillinase resistant penicillins

    1) spectrum
    2) used for
    • 1) narrow
    • 2) peniccilinase g+ cocci(staphycoccal)
  63. aminopenicillins

    1) spectrum
    2) effective against
    • 1) broad
    • 2) g- aerobes (Ecoli)
  64. extended spectrum penicillins

    1)spectrum
    2) treatment of which infection
    • 1) wide "semisynthestic"
    • 2) pseudomonas
  65. cephalosporins

    1) spectrum
    2) active against
    • 1) broad
    • 2) g+ and g-
  66. this group has been overused and has increased bacterial resistance
    cephelosporins
  67. cephalosporins

    1) MOA
    2) they are used
    • 1) bacterial cell wall synthesis
    • 2) prophylactically in high risk patients for surgery
  68. cephalosporins

    1) 1st generation
    2) 2nd gen
    3) 3rd gen
    4) 4th gen
    • 1) g+, pneumonia, uti
    • 2) g + and g-, bacterial influenza
    • 3) g-, STD
    • 4) cefepime admin. parenterally, g- and g+
  69. macrolides

    1)toxicity
    2) resistance
    • 1) low
    • 2) g- bacillus
  70. macrolide

    1) MOA
    2) Uses
    • 1) inhibit protein synthesis
    • 2) resp. infection, skin (acne), STD ( when allergic to penicillin)
  71. erythromycin should not be combined with
    • verapamil
    • ditaiazem
    • fluconazole
  72. ___ not administered orally, just parent, im, iv because of ____
    • aminoglycosides
    • poor GI absorption
  73. aminoglycosides

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) bind and disrupt protein synthesis
    • 2) short term treat, g-, only when less toxic agents are unavailable
  74. ___ 1st broad spectrum ab released in USA
    tetracyclines
  75. tetracyclines

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) interfere with protein synthesis in g- and g+
    • 2) rickettsia, chlamydia, acne, rocky mount, h pylori,
  76. __ is an excellent oral absorption
    fluoroquinoles
  77. fluoroquinoles

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    3) resistant
    • 1) alter DNA
    • 2) skin, bone, joint, uti, lower resp, gonorehha, pneumonia, anthrax, GI
    • 3) P. aeruguinosa and S aerus
  78. ____ agents have serious side effects and children and adults
    fluoroquinoles
  79. lincomycins

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) inhibit protein synthesis
    • 2) bone, joint, pelvic, septcimia, pneumonia, tissue infect,
  80. lincomycin drug and drug associations
    clindamycin- wide, rt infect, septcim, osteo, female pelvic, aids
  81. vancomycin

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) cell lysis
    • 2) MRSA, g+ in penicillin allergy, Parenteral IV, VRSA, VRE
    • -Oral: AAPMC
  82. linezolid

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) inhibit protein synthesis, strep/staph/entero cocci
    • 2) pneumonia, skin, VRE, diabetic foot,
  83. ___ first new AB to target MRSA and VRE in 35 years
    linezolid
  84. metronidoazole

    1) agent
    2) MOA
    3) uses
    • 1) synthetic, antibacterial/ antiprotozoal
    • 2) disrupt DNA and protein synthesis
    • 3) anerobic bacteria and protozoan
  85. ___ is the most common used AB agents in the world especially against UTI
    sulfonamides
  86. sulfonamides

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) inhibit bacterial enzyme to prevent synthesis of folic acid
    • 2) UTI, nocardosis, burn, pneumonia in aids pt.
  87. UTI drug

    1) antiseptic
    2) analgesics
    • 1) nitrofurantonin
    • 2) phenazopyridine(orange)
  88. used to treat sever systemic, and fatal fungi infections
    amphotericin B
  89. acyclovir/valacyclovir

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) viral DNA synthesis and replication
    • 2) HSV-1(oral), HSV-2
  90. amantadine

    1)MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) block influenza A, dopamine in CNS
    • 2) prevent/ treat influenza A
  91. neuramidase inhibitors

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) inhibits neuromindase, influenza A and B
    • 2) adults, children over 1
  92. neuramidase agents
    • oseltamivir- oral
    • zanamivir-inhaled
  93. antiretroviral drugs
    • treat HIV
    • cocktail called HAART
  94. CCR5- tropic HIV-1 Antagonists
    • block CCR5 receptors
    • -maraviroc
  95. fusion inhibitors
    prevent gp41 viral protein from attatching to fusion domain

    -enfuvirtide
  96. NRTI

    1) MOA
    2) drugs
    • 1) false bases
    • 2) emtici
    • didanos
    • lamivud
    • stavud
    • tenof
    • zidovu
  97. NNRTI

    1) MOA
    2) uses
    • 1) bind directly to RT enzyme and block DNA w/o harming DNA activity
    • 2) delavird
    • nevira
    • efavirenz
  98. define medical asepsis
    absence of pathogenic organism
  99. define surgical asepsis
    abscense of all microorganisms
  100. cytoxic t cells
    helper t cells
    suppressor t cells
    • - cell lysis
    • - master controller of immune system
    • - limit immune system especially antitumor activity
  101. ___ lymphocytes are the only ones that can make antibodies
    B
  102. interferons
    enhance activity of macrophages and NK cells
  103. colony stimulating factor
    responsible for production of RBC, WBC, platelets etc

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Author:
ChelseaL
ID:
332613
Filename:
Pharm exam 3
Updated:
2017-07-05 21:08:57
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pharmacology
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Pharm
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