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What is defined as a situation hat threatens one's physical safety, arousing feelings of fear, horror, or helplessness?
What is stress?
What is a stressor?
How are they different?
- Stress: The physical and mental response to a stressor
- Stressor: A stressful event or situation
A stressor induces stress. Stressors are external events, stress is our response to them.
Explain appraisal when dealing with stress.
- Appraisal refers to deciding whether to view something as a stressor.
- Stress refers to the process of appraising and responding to events which we consider threatening or challenging.
What event is the most stressful on the listing of life changes?
- The death of a loved one.
- Grief is the emotional response to loss.
A condition in which individuals who have undergone severe ordeals-rape, combat, beatings, or torture, for example, may experience a belated pattern of stress symptoms that can appear months or even years after their trauma.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
Women are ____ likely than men to develop symptoms of PTSD after experiencing a traumatic event, and Hispanic Americans are ___ at risk than non-Hispanic or Black Americans.
- Experienced memory difficulty
- Emotionally numb
- Feeling of alienation
- Less joy in events that used to be enjoyable
- Sleep issues
- Exaggerated "startled response"
What is the syndrome of overwhelming exhaustion, feelings of cynicism and detachment from the job, and a sense of ineffectiveness and lack of accomplishment?
Define a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, ofter related to work.
Burnout was first recognized in professions of demanding _________ contact, such as doctors, teachers, and/or social workers.
Patients with burnout often seek escape and avoid their work, leading to decreased _____.
What is the positive alternative to burnout?
What are the six major areas of work life that have been found relevant to employee/workplace fit?
Is burnout a personal problem or weakness?
Who's responsibility is it to address this issue in the workspace?
Taken individually, such minor irritations and frustrations, known as____, don't seem like much in comparison to a natural disaster.
The danger is when it start accumulating
A clear relationship emerged between hassles and health problem: The ____ frequent and intense the hassles people experience, the poorer their health, both physical and mental.
Daily "waiting" is an example of ____
What are some interventions concerning hassles?
- Connect with nature
- Take a walk in the park or on a beach
- Swim, hike, bike
- Visit a zoo
What are the 3 phases of general adaptation syndrome?
- Alarm Reaction
What is a three phase pattern of physical responses to a chronic stressor?
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
General Adaptation Syndrome
In brief, Selye discovered that different stressors triggered _________________, or general physical response, which mobilized the body's resources to deal with the threat.
The same systemic reaction
General Adaptation Syndrome
All stressors provoke some attempt at adaptation or adjustement of the body to the stressor. Because the bodily response was _________________ it is called general adapation syndrome.
A general rather than a specific adaptation effort
General adaptation syndrome
During the alarm reaction phase, the ____ sets off, signaling the ____ glands, resulting in a flood of steroid hormones, that support ___ and _____.
______ are also released, which reduces the body's awareness of pain. Send through the _____ nervous system.
The alarm phase of the General Adaptation Syndrome sends messages through two pathways.
- Sympathetic Nervous system
- Endocrine System
What happens during the resistance phase of the GAS if a different stressor, other than the original one, is introduced?
Unable to cope with the additional stress, might lead to exhaustion
What hormone is believed to underlie the tend-and-befriend response?
What type of locus of control, internal or external, is associated with better health outcomes?
What is associated with fewer symptoms of illness, optimism or pessimism?
What is problem-focused coping? What is emotion-focused coping?
- Emotion-Focused Coping
- Responding to stress by controlling one’s emotional responses (not ruminating)
- Problem-Focused Coping
- Responding to stress by identifying, reducing, and eliminating the stressor
What is cognitive restructuring?
- Reappraising stressors
- Its goal is to create a less stressful perspective.
- Recognizing thoughts about the stressor that is leading to the anxiety
- Cornerstone of cognitive-behavioral therapy
What is resilience?
- Capacity to adapt, achieve well-being, and cope with stress, in spite of serious threats to development
- Resilience and recovery are far more common than chronic dysfunction or delayed trauma
What are the benefits of social support on health?
- Having close relationships is associated with improved health, immune functioning, and longevity.
- Social support, including from pets, provides a calming effect that reduces blood pressure and stress hormones.
- Confiding in others helps manage painful feelings.
- Laughter helps too.
What are the effects of exercise on mental health?
- Aerobic exercise reduces depression and anxiety, and improves management of stress.
- Aerobic exercise is correlated with high confidence, vitality, and energy, and good mood
What is health psychology?
Psychological field that studies psychosocial factors that contribute to promoting health and well-being—and also those that influence illness—with the goal of educating the public about developing healthier lifestyles
____ and ____ have been identified as the characteristics of type A personality associated with heart disease.
Stress effect on Immune
- the production of new neurons declines
- neural circuits in the brain break down
- DNA telomeres (chromosome tips) shorten, cells lose ability to divide, cells die, tissue stops regenerating, early aging and death
What is Type A personality?
- behavior pattern characterized by intense, angry, competitive, or hostile responses to challenging situations
- People with a type A personality are impatient, verbally aggressive, and always pushing themselves and others to achieve.
What is psychopathology?
Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals.
What percent of the U.S. population suffers from diagnosable mental health problems in a given year?
More than 26 percent of the U.S. population—more than one in four Americans—are diagnosed with mental health problems in a given year.
What are delusions? What are hallucinations?
- Hallucinations: A false sensory experience that may suggest mental disorder.
- Delusions: An extreme disorder of thinking, involving persistent false beliefs.
Describe the medical model view of mental disorders.
- Mental disorders are diseases of the mind.
- Similar to other physical diseases
- Objective causes requiring specific treatments
- People began to perceive individuals with psychological problems as sick rather than demon-possessed
- Brought human reforms that called for placing the “insane” in protective “asylums.” In this supportive atmosphere, many patients actually improved—even thrived—on rest, contemplation, and simple but useful work.
- Initially therapeutic asylums turned into overcrowded warehouses of neglected patients
- Psychologists argue that the assumption of “disease” leads to a doctor-knows-best approach, in which the therapist takes all the responsibility for diagnosing the illness and prescribing treatment.
- Psychologists believe that this attitude wrongly encourages dependency on the doctor, encourages unnecessary drug therapy.
Describe the biopsychology view of mental disorders.
What is the distress criterion indicator of abnormality? What is the maladaptiveness criterion indicator of abnormality? (be able to recognize examples of each)
What is the DSM-5 and how does it organize mental disorders?
The DSM-5, the most widely used system for classifying mental disorders, organizes psychological disorders by their mental and behavioral symptoms
What are the signs of depression?
- Depressed mood most of the day, and/or
- Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities
- Significant increase or decrease in appetite or weight
- Insomnia, sleeping too much, or disrupted sleep
- Lethargy, or physical agitation
- Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
- Worthlessness, or excessive/inappropriate guilt
- Daily problems in thinking, concentrating, and/or making decisions
- Recurring thoughts of death and suicide
What is learned helplessness and how is it applied to depression?
What does major depressive disorder with seasonal pattern seem to be related to?
- Formerly, Seasonal affective disorder is more than simply disliking winter.
- Involves a recurring seasonal pattern of depression, usually during winter’s short, dark, cold days.
- Treated with artificial light therapy
- Survey: “Have you cried today”? Result: More people answer “yes” in winter.
What is believed to explain women’s higher depression rates compared to men?
Women, starting in adolescence, appear to ruminate more, have deeper sadness then men, encounter more stressors, and report their depression more readily.
What is bipolar disorder? Describe characteristics of a manic episode.
- A disorder involving swings of mood from mania to depression
- excessive elation or manic excitement
- sadness or despair
Mania: euphoric, giddy, easily irritated, with:
§hypersociality and sexuality
§delight in everything
§impulsivity and overactivity
§racing thoughts; the mind won’t settle down
§little desire for sleep
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
- Persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any known external cause
- Not worried about any specific situation or object
Describe the symptoms of a panic attack.
Fear, anxiety, panic attacks
What is panic disorder?
- Marked by panic attacks that have no obvious connection to events in a person’s present experience
- Many with panic disorder also have agoraphobia
What is specific phobia?
A specific phobia is more than just a strong fear or dislike. A specific phobia is diagnosed when there is an uncontrollable, irrational, intense desire to avoid the some object or situation. Even an image of the object can trigger a reaction--“GET IT AWAY FROM ME!!!”--the uncontrollable, irrational, intense desire to avoid the object of the phobia
What is agoraphobia?
Fear of public places/open spaces
What part of the brain is thought to be the underlying mechanism operating in phobias?
What does the preparedeness hypothesis suggest about the development of phobias?
What is an obsession? What is a compulsion?
- Obsessions are intense, unwanted worries, ideas, and images that repeatedly pop up in the mind.
- A compulsion is a repeatedly strong feeling of “needing” to carry out an action, even though it doesn’t feel like it makes sense.
What are dissociative disorders?
Group of pathologies involving “fragmentation” of the personality
What is dissociative fugue?
Dissociative amnesia with the addition of “flight” from one’s home, family, and job
What is dissociative identity disorder?
Condition in which the individual displays multiple identities
What are the characteristics of schizophrenia?
- Severe psychopathology
- Personality seems to disintegrate
- Emotional life is disrupted
- Cognitive processes distorted
- More common in men than women
- First appearance: typically before age twenty-five for men; between twenty-five and forty-five for women
- Occurs in 1 out of every 100 Americans
What evidence exists that schizophrenia has a biological basis?
How does theory of mind relate to children with autism spectrum disorder?
What are personality disorders?
What are characteristics of antisocial personality disorder?
What are characteristics of borderline personality disorder?