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Define boiling point.
Temperature of substance when vapor pressure exceeds the atmospheric pressure and liquid turns into a gas on the surface.
Define Chemical Reactivity
Ability of a material to undergo a chemical change. The susceptibility of material to release energy by itself or in combination with other materials.
(pH) A measure of a substance tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance or in a particular environment.
Define acid and its characteristics.
- Bellow pH of 7
- Dissolves metals
- Strong acids have pH equal to or less than 2
What color does and acid turn litmus paper to? Base?
Define base and its characteristics.
- pH is above 7
- Strong bases have pH of 12.5 or higher
- Also known as alkalie
Define lower explosive limit (LEL or LFL).
Minimum concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source. (“too lean for combustion”)
Define the upper explosive limit (UEL or UFL).
Maximum vapor to air concentration above which, a flame will not propagate (“too rich to burn”).
Within the flammable explosive range, where should the percentage of the products vapor to air fall, to ensure that it is flammable?
It must be between the LEL and UEL, but the concentrations vary depending on the product density, wind direction, speed, and temperature.
Define flash point.
Temperature at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors that will ignite readily given an ignition source. The fire does not have to continue burning.
What is the primary factor in determining a liquid’s fire hazard?
Vapor generation because it is the vapors of the flammable liquid that burn.
Define ignition temperature / auto-ignition temperature.
Minimum temperature required to cause self-sustained combustion ion the absence of any source of ignition.
Significance / impact is used to evaluate how easy it is for material to catch fire
Define particle size.
Refers to solids, and is expressed in microns or percent passing through meshed screen.
The ability for the material to stay within the area of release for a long period of time. (Generally considered to be more than 24 hours and is intended to prevent personnel from re-entering area due to remaining high concentrations)
What is ionizing radiation?
- Consists of particles (α, β) or high energy rays (γ rays, x-rays)
- Alpha, beta, gamma, neutron
What is the significance and impact of ionizing radiation?
- When the high energy impacts the atom, it has the ability to cause a physical change, making them electrically charged and ionizing radiation hazardous.
- The damage can be immediate and physical.
- The damage can lead to genetic mutations.
- Does not have an effect on container or contents.
What is non-ionizing radiation?
- Radio waves
- Visible light
- Ultra violet light
- Magnetic field
What is the significance and impact of non-ionizing radiation?
- Ultra violet radiation exposure causes sunburns
- Causes genetic damage to skin cells and can lead to skin cancer
- Beyond control of hazardous materials / WMD responders
Define specific gravity.
Ratio of weight of a liquid or solid compared to an equal amount of water.
Water is given a value of one. Specific gravity greater than 1 means item will sink. Less than 1, it will float.
What kind of problem would a toxic product of combustion pose?
The smoke, steam, and runoff from the fire or fire-fighting operations can contaminate a large area and increase the need for respiratory protection and for evacuation further downwind of the fire.
Define vapor density.
The ratio of the weight of a vapor as compared to an equal amount of air.
- Less than 1, the vapor will rise and dissipate. Greater than 1, the vapor will seek low lying areas when released.
- Useful for determining the behavior of free vapors at the scene of a vaporizing liquid spill or gas release.
Define vapor pressure.
The pressure at any given temperature in which the vapor and liquid phases are in equilibrium with each other a closed container.
How can altitude and temperature affect significance / impact fuels?
Those with a high flash point could become flammable with a change in altitude and pressure.
What are types of solubility?
All mixes of solid, liquid, or gas except solid to gas, or solid to solid.
What does it mean to be slightly soluble?
Partly soluble or will easily saturate the substance.
What is another term solubility can be referred to as?
“Miscibility” which is typically used for liquids and gases.
What is the difference between contamination and secondary contamination?
- Contamination: occurs at the point of release
- Transfer of hazardous material to persons, equipment, and environment is greater than acceptable quantities
- For the victim, contamination occurs at point of release
- For responders, contamination occurs during control operation
- Secondary Contamination:
- It is the indirect transfer when contaminated personnel or equipment is transferred away from the hot zone.
- Usually as a result of coming into contact with contaminated equipment or personnel.
- Needs to be decontaminated adequately
What is the difference between being exposed and being contaminated?
Exposed: not necessarily contaminated by material, it is when you are in the area of release
Contaminated: obviously you have been exposed to contaminated material
What is the difference between exposure and hazard?
Hazard: something capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health and safety (exposure is the process of coming in contact with hazardous material)
- Exposure: affected by duration and concentration of hazardous material
- Person can be exposed to large quantities of hazardous material but may not present hazard
- A person may be exposed to small quantities of material that pose a high hazard.
What is the difference between infectious and contagious?
Infectious: caused by exposure to harmful microorganisms. The microorganisms can multiply and attack the host but the disease does not have to be contagious.
Contagious: capable of being transmitted from one human (animal) to another via typically through body fluid and secretions.
What is the difference between acute and chronic effects?
- Acute Effects present symptoms immediately.
- Chronic Effects manifest later in time, which could be over a couple years.
What is the difference between acute and chronic exposure?
Acute exposures generally considered to be large concentrations over short period of time with immediate or long term effects.
Chronic exposures are over long periods of time, with repeated periods of contact and at relatively low concentrations.
What is a “stress”?
The applied force or system forces that tend to strain or deform a body.
What are the three types of stress that could cause a container to release its contents?
Thermal: as a result of radiated, convected or direct heat exposure
Mechanical: a result from some dominant physical force
Chemical: a result of a reaction or interaction between chemical(s) coming in contact with the container or its contents, it may also be result of a change in contents alone
What are five ways in which a container can breach (types of breach)?
- Disintegration: container material fails due to rust, corrosion or other form of disintegration
- -A glass bottle breaking or exploding
Run-away cracking: a small crack that unexpectedly develops into a swiftly growing crack which encircles the container. The outcome is usually a breach that breaks apart violently in to two or more sections.
- Closures opening up: the failure or incorrect operation of the closing mechanism
- -Hatch, cap, gasket, or sight gauge
- Punctures: these are usually due to mechanical stressors, where a container has been hit by another physical object.
- -Forklift collides into container causing it to open
- Splits / tears: these are due to mechanical stressors, where the container has been hit in a sliding motion from another object
- -Torn plastic or fiber bags
- -Split steel drums
What is the type of breach dependent on?
Type and duration of stress
What determines the speed and amount of contents being released?
Type and size of breach.
What are four ways in which a container can release its contents?
- Violent rupture
- Rapid Relief
- Spills and leaks
One of the four ways a container can release its contents is detonation, what is that?
- A detonation is an explosion of contents
- Unstable molecules, that when energized, instantaneously split into many small pieces releasing very large amounts of heat as they do
- Release time less than 1/100th of a second
- No time to react
- High explosive (3200 ft / sec)
- Low explosive (<3200 ft / sec)
Oxidizing hazardous material (organic peroxides, although, have inhibitors to prevent such occurances
One of the four ways a container can release its contents is violent rupture, what is that?
- Not an explosion
- Rapid-acceleration polymerization
What is polymerization?
A chemical reaction in which a catalyst such as light or heat, typically under pressure, cause simple molecules to combine to form long chain molecules
What is rapid-acceleration?
Run-away polymerization (not under control) that causes the material to expand at an uncontrollable rate, uncontainable within a container or without addition of inhibitor.
One of the four ways a container can release its contents is rapid relief, what is that?
They are pressure ruptures due to over pressurization. The pressure is a result of external stress and heat. It typically occurs with a safety valve or relief valve failure.
One of the four ways a container can release its contents is spills and leaks, what is that?
- Gradual flow through openings
- Tears and splits
What are the 7 dispersion patterns that can be created upon the release of a hazardous material?
Hemisphere: semicircular or dome shaped pattern of airborne hazardous material that is in partial contact with ground or water
Cloud: bell-shaped pattern of airborne hazardous material where material collectively risen above the ground water
Plume: irregular shaped pattern of airborne hazardous material where wind influence topography of chemical downrange
Cone: triangular shaped dome of airborne hazardous material with a point source at the breach and a wide base down range
Stream: liquid material flowing with the topography, but remaining generally consistent in width and spill length
Pool: an equally shaped circle that accumulates in low areas
Irregular: indiscriminate deposit or pattern with no definitive shape of material
What are the factors that influence dispersion patterns?
- Amount of material
- Form of material (s, l, g)
- Weather conditions
- Type of container breach
- Type of release
What are factors that influence length of time?
- Quantity of material released
- Method of dispersion
- Speed of release
What are the three dispersion general time frames?
- Short term (minutes and hours)
- Low hazard
- Small (short) release
- Quick control
- Medium term (day, week, months)
- Moderate to high hazards
- Exposure contamination has occurred
- Decontamination lengthy and difficult
- Moderate cleanup required
- Long Term (years and generations)
- High hazards
- Heavy contamination
- Decontamination is lengthy and difficult
- Extensive clean up required
Injury or damage caused by being exposed to the hazards of the material.
What are two factors that influence harm?
- Concentrations of the material
- Duration of contact
What is the acronym (and what does it mean) for the 8 types of hazards that cause harm?
Thermal: burns from excessive heat or cold
Etiological: contamination from bodily fluid born diseases (botulism, rabies, etc.)
Asphyxiation: from chemical asphyxiation, which is the inability of the lungs or blood system to carry or deliver oxygen to the body’s tissue
Mechanical: due to explosion or fire
Corrosive: breaking down the layers of skin (by contact)
Poisonous Harm: results from materials that inhibit the body’s normal biological functions
Radiation: damaging / mutating the body through waves or particles
Psychological Harm: the acute psychological damage from a violent crime that generates fear and helplessness, threaten people’s physical or psychological well-being and leave’s victims in an emotional state
(directly proportional to the concentration and duration of released material)
Any material that causes cancerous growths on living tissue.
Materials that cause visible destruction or irreversible damage alterations to living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact.
A chemical falling within any of the following categories:
- LD50 between 50 mg and 500 mg.
- Lethal dose LC50 is 200 ppm
- LD50 is between 200 ppm and 3 000 ppm
A chemical that is not corrosive reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. (Corrosive is irreversible)
A chemical that causes substantial proportion of people to develop an allergic reaction.
Define Hepatotoxins. What are the signs and symptoms, plus examples?
Chemicals that produce liver damage.
- Signs and Symptoms: jaundice and liver enlargement
- Chemicals: Carbontetrachloride, Nitrosamines
Define Nephrotoxin. What are the signs and symptoms, plus examples?
Chemicals that produce kidney damage.
- Signs and Symptoms: Edema and protein urea
- Chemicals: Halogenated hydrocarbons, uranium
Define Neurotoxin. What are the signs and symptoms, plus examples?
Chemicals that produce toxic effects to the nervous system
- Signs and Symptoms: Numbness, tingling, decreased sensation, change in reflexes; decreased motor strength
- Chemicals: Arsenic, lead, toluene, styrene
Define Blood Agents. What are the signs and symptoms, plus examples?
Decrease the function of hemoglobin in the blood; deprive hematopolatic body tissues of oxygen system.
- Signs and Symptoms: Cyanosis; loss of consciousness
- Chemicals: Carbon monoxide and benzene
Define Pulmonary Agents. What are the signs and symptoms, plus examples?
They irritate the lungs or damage pulmonary tissue.
- Signs and Symptoms: coughs, tightness of chest, shortness of breath
- Chemicals: Silica, asbestos, HCl
Define Reproductive Toxins.
Chemicals that affect reproductive capabilities.
Define Cutaneous Hazards.
Chemicals that affect dermal layer of the body.
Substance that causes unconsciousness or death by suffocation. It displaces oxygen within the body.
Define alpha particles.
Slow moving particles that are relatively heavy.
- Short range of travel – 3 in.
- Not considered dangerous unless ingested
- SCBA can protect you
Define beta particles.
- Very small with high speed penetrating power.
- Travel distance – 7 ft (2.1 m)
- Damage skin and organs if ingested or absorbed
- SCBA can protect you
Define gamma rays.
- Most dangerous form of radiation. Originates from the nucleus of the atom, move at the speed of light.
- Shielded by several feet of concrete
- Protective clothing inadequate
Neutron particles ejected from atom nucleus. Best shielded by water or high concentration of hydrogen.
What three factors help prevent health hazards from ionizing radiation?
Time, distance and shielding.
How is shielding rated?
- Shield is rated in half value layers.
- Amount of material required to stop half the radiation.
What are the best factors for reducing health hazards of radiation?
Time and distance. Shielding should not always be seeked out.
What are examples of nerve agents and hazard classes?
- Nerve agent (GA)
- Sarin (GB)
- Soman (GD)
- V Agent (VX)
What are examples of vesicant / blister agents and hazard classes?
- Mustard (H)
- Distilled mustard (HD)
- Nitrogen mustard (HN)
- Lewisite (L)
What are examples of blood agents and hazard classes?
- Hydrogen cyanide (AC)
- Cyanogen chloride (CK)
What are examples of choking agents and hazard classes?
- Chlorine (CL)
- Phosgene (CG)
What are examples of irritants and hazard classes?
- Tear gas (CS)
- Pepper spray, mace
- Mace, phenychloromethylketone, chloropicrin
What are examples of biological agents and toxins and hazard classes associated?
- Viral hemorrhagic fevers
- Small pox
What are examples of radiological material and hazard classes?
- Alpha particles
- Beta particles
- Gamma particles
What is the process for estimating the potential outcomes within endangered area at a HazMat or WMD incident?
- Determine dimensions of are (ERG)
- Estimate number of exposures
- Measuring and predicting concentrations of materials within the endangered area
- Estimating physical, health, sand safety hazards within danger area
- Estimate potential outcomes within endangered area
What must an operational responder be capable of doing in a HazMat / WMD incident?
Describe are of potential harm. They are not expected to engage in intricate calculations.
What can help a responder determine the size of the endangered area?
- US DOT ERG (green for inhalation hazards, orange for initial distances)
- Plume dispersion model
What three elements can be harmed during exposure to HazMat?
People, environment, property.
What four factors determine number and type of exposure?
- Time of day
- Type of occupancy
- Location of release
Can CHMETREC help you determine concentration of released hazard?
No, but dispersion models and monitoring equipment can. Recourses are also listed in ERG. You can’t use CHEMTREC for technical assistance either.
What factors influence your decision for comparing gains people may receive from intervening in a HazMat incident?
- Quantity and concentration of HazMat released
- Number exposures in endangered area
- Manner in which exposures are subject to harm
What entity provides the recources for that help describe the number of exposures that could be saved by responder?
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
What are the three steps to determining total number of exposures that could be saved in HazMat incident?
- Determine total number exposures
- Determine number exposures lost
- Estimate effectiveness of chosen action option
Where does the key component lie when determining the exposures that could save lives?
Hazard risk assessment
- Which includes:
- Material involved
- Chemical and physical properties of material
- Determine # exposures
- Recouces available to mitigate and isolate
What are defensive response objectives based on?
- Current stage of incident
- Strategic goals for now and future events
Limited to actions that protect people.
What should decisions be focused on for a defensive response objectives?
Stressor, containment system, material involved.
What acronym helps assess the risk to a responder for each hazard class in rescuing injured personel?
- Poisonous Harm
- Psychological harm
What two categories do defensive options fall into in order to accomplish a given response objective?
- Recognition, identification, notification, isolation
What are the three types of contamination?
Primary contact contamination: direct contact with HazMat in hot zone (only garments and equipment)
Secondary contact contamination
Residual contamination: from the runoff (by product of decon)
What is the importance and limitations of decontamination procedures at HazMat incidents?
- Limit exposure to others from secondary contamination
- Prevent the spread of HazMat
- Protect environment
- Removes contaminates that pose imediate threat
- Will not remove all contaminates
- Knowing the material, weather conditions, equipment available, topogrophy
What are key considerations in locating an emergency decon area?
- Uphill, upwind
- Ability to control
- Minimize exposure from secondary contamination
- Surface material
- Drains and waterways
- Water availability
- Weather conditions
What are the two methods of emergency decontaminiation?
Physical removal: dislodging / displacement, rinsing, wiping off, evaporating
Chemical: detoxification or disinfection / sterilization
What are the advantages and limitations to emergency decon?
- Can occur anywhere there is a need for it
- An expedient process with simplified set up requirements
- Does not require large amount of recources
- Gross decon only
- Does not remove all contaminants
- Fails to elimenate secondary contaminates
- Loss of privacy
- Secondary contamination still possible
- Only prvides gross decon only
- Required expediency could cross decontaminant with contaminant
- Can damage environment (runoff not primary concern but should be considered)
What is the purpose of technical decontamination?
It is a planned systematic process for reducing contamination to a level that is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
Established in support of emergency responder entry.
What are the technical decontamination corrider site criteria / layout?
- -inside warm zone and upwind hot zone
- -drainage does not go to sewer
- -on level terrain or slopes to hot zone
- -hard surface
- -safe water supply source
- -area is clear of obstacles and large enough
What are 5 examples of physical decontamination?
- Brushing and Scraping
- Isolation and disposal
(Contaminent remains chemically unchanged)
What are 5 methods for chemical decontamination?
- Chemical degredation
- Disinfection or sterilization
What are prevention methods that should be considered to prevent contamination?
Stress work practices that minimize hazardous substance.
Wear limited-use or disposal protective clothing and equipment
During the doffing of PPE, what should be maintained?
A log book
What criteria should be used for evaluating decontamination effectiveness during field operations?
Contamination levels reduced as personel move through corridor.
Contamination confined to hot zone.
Contamination reduced to level that is low and reasonably achievable.
What 3 methods can be used for assessing effectiveness of decon?
What do you refer to for emergency medical requirements?
LERP and SOP / SOG
Define Runoff Control
Ensuring precautions are taken to take care of contaminated waste.
Technical decon process
What health guidelines shoud you refrence for waste containment, disposal and clean up?