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2010-10-08 08:47:41
Genetics Vocabulary

Vocabulary for MSU ZOL 341
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  1. Genetics
    study of biologically inherited traits, including traits that are influenced in part by the environment
  2. Genomics
    study of all the genes in an organism to understand their molecular organization, function, interaction, and evolutionary history
  3. Genes
    Elements of heredity that are transmitted from parents to offspring in reproduction
  4. Deoxyribonucleic acid
    • DNA - material genes are made of
    • uses deoxyribose as the sugar
    • double stranded helix
    • antiparallel
  5. Ribonucleic Acid
    • RNA - used in part of the process of creating needed molecules based off of the genes in DNA
    • single stranded helix
    • Ribose is the sugar
  6. Nitrogenous Base
    • One component of a nucleotide
    • 4 Nitrogenous bases in DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Tyrosine, Cytosine
  7. Nucleotide
    a molecule consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and base
  8. Phosphodiester Bonds
    • Covalent bond formed between the 5' phosphate group of one nucleotide with the 3' hydroxyl group of the next nucleotide in line
    • These bonds form the backbone of a nucleic acid molecule (aka DNA, RNA)
  9. Purine
    An organic base found in nucleic acids; Adenine and Guanine
  10. Pyrimidine
    An organic base found in nucleic acids; Cytosine, Thymine (in DNA), and Uracil (in RNA)
  11. Hydrogen Bonds
    A weak noncovalent linkage between two negatively charged atoms in which a hydrogen atom is shared
  12. Guanine
    • A purine base in DNA and RNA
    • Bonds only with Cytosine
  13. Cytosine
    • A pyrimidine base in DNA and RNA
    • Binds only with Guanine
  14. Adenine
    • A purine base in DNA and RNA
    • Binds with Thymine in DNA or Uracil in RNA
  15. Thymine
    • A pyrimidine base found only in DNA
    • Binds with Adenine
  16. Uracil
    • A pyrimidine base found only in RNA
    • Binds to Adenine in a RNA strand
  17. Nucleic Acid
    A polymer composed of repeating units of phosphate-linked five-carbon sugars to which nitrogenous bases are attached
  18. Antiparallel
    • Where one string of nucleotides runs one direction and pairs with another string of nucleotides running in the opposite direction
    • Chemical orientation of the two strands of a double-stranded nucleic acid molecule; the 5'-3' orientation of the two strands are opposite each other
  19. Auxotroph
    A mutant microorganism unable to synthesize a compound required for its growth but able to grow if the compound is provided
  20. Phototroph
    An organism able to grow in minimal medium without any added help
  21. Phenotype
    The observable properties of a cell or an organism, which result from the itneraction of the genotype and the environment.
  22. Genotype
    The genetic constitution of an organism or virus, typically with respect to one or a few genes of interest, as distinguished from its appearance, or phenotype
  23. Minimal Medium
    A growth medium consisting of simpe inorganic salts, a carbohydrate, vitamins, organic bases, essential amino acids, and other essential compounds
  24. Complete Medium
    Culture medium containing all required nutrients to support growth and cell division
  25. Genetic Block
    Caused by a mutation that makes it impossible for the organism to produce a specific needed protein by halting the biosynthetic pathway
  26. Deoxyribose
    Sugar in DNA
  27. Ribose
    Sugar in RNA
  28. Leading strand
    The DNA strand whose complement is synthesized as a continuous unit
  29. DNA Polymerase
    an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA from deosynucleoside 5' triphosphates using a template strand
  30. Helicase
    Separates the stands of DNA
  31. Gyrase
    A topoisomerase enzyme that helps to relax the tension in the coils during DNA replication
  32. Primer
    RNA primer of 2-5 bases that start DNA synthesis
  33. SSB
    binds single stranded DNA
  34. Lagging Strand
    The DNA strand whose complement is synthesized in short fragments later joined together
  35. Endonuclease
    breaks internal phosphodiester bonds in DNA or RNA
  36. Exonuclease
    An enzyme that removes a terminal nucleotide in apolnucleotide chain by cleavage of the terminal phosphodiester bond
  37. RecA protein
    Unwinds dsDNA and helps insert ssDNa and promotes replacement of homologous chromosomes
  38. Ligase
    An enzyme that catalyzes formation of a cobalent bond between adjacent 5' P and 3' OH termini in a broken polynucleotide strand of double stranded DNA
  39. Mismatch repair enzyme
    Fixes a mismatched pair by choosing a strand and replacing the mismatched base with the correct base
  40. Synaptonemal complex
    formed during substage of first meiotic prophase and binds together homologous pairs of chromosomes during synapsis prophase of meiosis