Federal grants-in-aid that permit state and local officials to decide how the money will be spent within a general area, such as education or health.
Federal grants-in-aid to states and localities that can be used only for designated projects.
The clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8) that empowers the federal government to regulate commerce among the states and with other nations.
A governmental system in which sovereignty is vested entirely in subnational (state) governments.
The situation in which the national, state, and local levels work together to solve problems.
The passing down of authority from the national government to states and localities.
A doctrine based on the idea that a precise separation of national power and state power is both possible and desirable.
enumerated (expressed) powers
The seventeen powers granted to the national government under Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution. These powers include taxation and the regulation of commerce as well as the authority to provide for the national defense.
A governmental system in which authority is divided between two sovereign levels of government: national and regional.
Expenditure of federal funds on programs run in part through states and localities.
Federal cash payments to states and localities for programs they administer.
The federal government's constitutional authority (through the "necessary and proper" clause) to take action that is not expressly authorized by the Constitution but that supports actions that are so authorized.
"necessary and proper" (elastic) clause
The authority granted Congress in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper" for the implementation of its enumerated powers.
The powers granted to the states under the Tenth Amendment to the Constitution.
The ultimate authority to govern within a certain geographical area.
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes national law supreme over state law when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.
A governmental system in which the national government alone has sovereign (ultimate) authority.