HazMat Technician Training Equipment

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  1. What are the steps in the analysis process for identifying an unknown material?
    Wear level A protective clothing

    Approach cautiously from upwind

    • Measure in the FOLLOWING order:
    • Radioactivity
    • Combustibility
    • Oxygen availability / deficiency
    • pH, if liquid
    • Hydrogen sulfide (if in areas of or adjacent to petroleum refining activities)
    • Carbon Monoxide
    • Organic vapors
  2. What is the monitoring technology used to measure radioactivity?
    Geiger Counter, Dosimeter, Thermal Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD)
  3. How many types of radiation does radiation monitoring technology typically measure?
    Two or more types of radiation (for example, a Geiger Counter can measure both gamma and beta)
  4. What do radiation detectors such as Geiger Counter, Dosimeter, or Thermal Luminescent Dosimeter (TLD) typically monitor for?
    Alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, neutron particles.
  5. What type of monitoring technology is used to measure flammability?
    Combustible Gas Indicator (CGI), Multi-Gas Monitor, PID, FID
  6. What does a combustible gas indicator measure?
    (Flammability Monitoring Technology) CGI can be used to determine presence of flammable vapors of hydrocarbons.
  7. Flammability monitoring technology contains certain instruments that are specially designed to monitor methane vapors only. How is it measured?
    The flammable vapors are measured as a percentage of the lower explosive limit.
  8. What do flash point instruments allow a responder to determine?
    • (Flammability Monitoring Technology) Allows the responder to determine:
    • -Flammability of an unknown material fairly accurately
    • -Class of flammable or combustible being dealt with
  9. What does it mean to say the many combustible gas indicators (flammability monitoring technology) are combination instruments?
    They can measure oxygen content and several toxic substances as well as combustible gas vapors.
  10. What monitoring technology is used to detect oxidation potential?
    Oxygen Meters to test oxygen rich atmosphere.

    Oxidizer paper to test presence of oxidizers.
  11. What is the primary danger of an oxidizing material?
    Oxygen is easily released, especially when heated, accelerating burning of combustible material.
  12. What monitoring technology is used to measure Corrosivity?
    pH-Litmus dye, pH paper, pH meters
  13. How is corrosivity measured?
    By determining pH of material. (pH-Litmus dye, pH paper, pH meters)
  14. What are commercially available pH meters?
    pH meters with a probe that is inserted into the material. It offers a more accurate reading, but needs to be rinsed every time.
  15. What monitoring technology is used to measure toxicity levels?
    Photoionization detectors, flame ionization detector, infrared spectrophotometers and detector tubes (can measure more than one chemical)
  16. How do detector tubes work (toxicity monitoring technology)?
    They allow responders to quickly evaluate potential hazards by drawing air samples through a small glass tube. This process causes material inside the tube to change indication of the material.
  17. What monitoring technology is used to measure pathogenicity?
    Biological immunoassay indicators, DNA fluoroscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hand held assays
  18. Define Pathogenicity.
    The virulence of a pathogen. Virulence refers to how ill an individual may become.
  19. What is the “Gold Standard” for identifying pathogens?
    Sending it to a laboratory that is a CDC certified Laboratory Response Network Facility.
  20. What must be observed when a sample is obtained to be measured for pathogenicity?
    Proper sampling, collection techniques, and evidence preservation and control.
  21. What are the capabilities of Biological Immunoassay Indicators (Hand Held Assays)?
    Tests for anthrax, ricin, botulinum toxin, plague, tularemia, Brucella and orthopox.

    Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests that can be used on-site and in the laboratory to detect specific molecules.
  22. What are limitations of Biological Immunoassay Indicators (Hand Held Assays)?
    False negative or false positives.

    Porous surfaces could hinder effectiveness of assay.
  23. What are assay Biological Immunoassay Indicators (Hand Held Assays)?
    Rapid field detection of biological warfare agents by detecting specific antibodies.

    Needs only minor field maintenance based on IAW Manufacturers Specification.
  24. What are the capabilities of calorimetric detector tubes?
    Detects specific gases and vapors.
  25. What are the limitations of calorimetric detector tubes?
    Will not provide quantitative results.

    Can’t interchange different manufacturer tubes.

    False positives.

    Not very accurate and interpreting color change can be difficult.

    Tubes have a shelf life and are affected by humidity and temperature (so they must be monitored).

    Response time varies material to material.
  26. What are the uses for calorimetric detector tubes?
    The tubes are filled with different reagents that react with material being test. If certain hazardous materials are present, the reagent changes color and produces a stain.

    A bellows or piston tube draws samples through tubes.

    Requires field calibration and minor field maintenance.
  27. What are the capabilities of pH meters?
    Measures acidity or alkalinity of a corrosive material.

    The meters provide a more accurate reading than pH paper / strips and are commercially available.
  28. What are the limitations to pH meters?
    Probes must be thoroughly rinsed with distilled water before and after each use.

    Close proximity to the material.

    Can be affected by oils or other contaminants.
  29. How do you use a calorimetric detector tubes?
    Meters have a probe that is inserted into the material and the pH level is indicated on a display screen

    Must be calibrated before each use and requires minor field maintenance.
  30. What are the capabilities of pH paper / strips?
    Chemical reaction changes the color of the paper.
  31. What are the limitations to pH paper / strips?
    False positives are possible.

    Must have accurate color perception.
  32. How do you use pH paper /strips?
    On a liquid sample.

    No field calibration or maintenance required.
  33. What are capabilities of reagents?
    A substance or solution combined with a material causing a chemical reaction.
  34. What are the limitations to reagents?
    Designed for specific chemical or biological material.
  35. How are reagents used?
    Used in some detection devices such as calorimetric tubes.

    Requires minor field maintenance.
  36. What are the capabilities of test strips?
    Tests for chemical agents.

    Instantly detects common chemical agents in the atmosphere (aerosolized) or surface liquid.
  37. What are the limitations to using test strips?
    Readings need to be verified with another instrument.
  38. What are the capabilities of a combustible gas indicator?
    They are designed to measure relative flammability of gases and to determine the percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL).

    Measure concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in atmosphere.

    Used to determine presence of flammable vapors and hydrocarbons.
  39. How are test strips used?
    When the strips come in contact with the substance, it changes color.

    Has a self-contained reliable and easy to read sensor.

    Has a wearable chemical indicator that can be worn by first responders.

    Requires minor field maintenance.
  40. What are the limitations to combustible gas indicators?
    Intended for us in normal atmospheres, not oxygen rich atmospheres. The reading are affected when oxygen levels deficient (lower readings).

    Requires a warm up period to heat up platinum catalyst inside.

    Does not identify other hazards such as toxicity.

    Operating filament is damaged by certain materials such as silicone, tetraethyl lead and acid gas but can be reduced through use of filter.
  41. How are combustible gas indicators used?
    Operates via catalytic combustion. The sample is drawn across a surface of heated platinum. If the sample is flammable, it will burn the platinum catalyst.

    Heat produced in proportion to amount of combustible gas present.

    Heated surface is connected to an electrical circuit known as a Wheatstone bridge, so the increase in temperature can give corresponding indication on the meter.

    Meter may read in LEL, ppm, or percent by volume.

    Frequently found as combination compressed gas indicator (CGI) / oxygen meter, or as triple combination meter with a third gas.

    Requires field calibration and minor field maintenance.
  42. What are the capabilities of DNA Fluoroscopy?
    Identifies specific DNA sequences, which enables it to detect and identify different biological agents.

    Quantitative monitoring of DNA via PCR.
  43. What are the limitations to DNA Fluoroscopy?
    On-scene field detection is presumptive but the “gold standard” continues to be laboratory identification.
  44. What is the use of DNA Fluoroscopy?
    Used to determine pathogenicity on scene.

    Requires minor field maintenance and field calibration.
  45. What are the capabilities of oxygen meters?
    Measures percentage of oxygen in atmosphere.

    Should be able to measure in both oxygen rich and oxygen enriched atmosphere for flammable material.

    May have passive sensor that draws in air.

    Can be individual unit or combined with CGI.
  46. What are the limitations to an oxygen meter?
    Some materials (Cl, F) will indicates a high normal level of Oxygen, when the atmosphere is actually oxygen deficient.

    Extreme cold delays meter.

    Must be calibrated in order to account for altitude and barometric pressure.

    High CO2 concentrations can shorten life of oxygen sensor.

    Does not indicate gas toxicity and gas replacing oxygen.
  47. How is the oxygen meter used?
    Operates by diffusion where air diffuses into the sensor.

    Oxygen reacts with electrolytes in the cell, generating a flow in the meter.

    Meter usually read percent of oxygen in sample.

    Requires field calibration and minor field maintenance.
  48. What are the capabilities of carbon monoxide meters (electrochemical cells)?
    Measures concentration of carbon monoxide.

    Provides immediate results.
  49. What are the limitations to carbon monoxide meters (electrochemical cells)?
    Only measures carbon monoxide.

    Meter may not indicate where are is oxygen deficient.

    Does not indicate the percent of the lower explosive limit.
  50. How is a carbon monoxide meter (electrochemical cell) used?
    Warns responders of possible ongoing combustion.

    Require field calibration and minor field maintenance (IAW Manufacturers specifications)
  51. What are the capabilities of a flame ionization detector?
    Tests for organic compounds (hydrocarbons such as butane or hexane)

    Biochemical compounds such as proteins, nucleotides, and pharmaceuticals cane be studied with flame ionization.
  52. What are the limitations to flame ionization detectors?
    Can only detect compounds that can be burned.

    FID destroys most if not all of the sample it is detecting.

    FID polarizing voltage is a high voltage and is potentially dangerous. This is the reason that FID is almost always the last detector.
  53. How are Flame Ionizing Detectors used?
    FIDs are best for detecting hydrocarbons and other flammable components. They are very sensitive to other components, and response tends to be linear across a wide range of concentrations.

    Field Calibration: IAW specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  54. What are the capabilities of gas chromatographer / mass spectrometer?
    Used to analyze molecular and ionic composition of chemical compounds.

    Include drug detection, fir investigation, environmental analysis, explosive investigation and identification of unknown samples.

    GC-MS is the “gold standard” in laboratory environment for forensic substance identification because it is used to perform a specific test.

    Performs a library search for false positives.
  55. What are the limitations to gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer?
    High cost

    Possibility of false positives and negatives.

    Size, power requirements.

    Analysis time.

    Extensive training requirement required to use it.
  56. What is the main gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer used?
    HAPSITE GC/MS

    Field Calibration: IAW specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  57. What are the capabilities of infrared spectroscopy?
    • It tests for:
    • -Solids, liquids, pastes
    • -Organic compounds
    • -Petroleum products, pesticides, fertilizers, plastics
    • -Plant materials
    • -Many inorganic compounds
    • -Water
    • -Mineral acids
    • -Inorganic oxides
    • -Nitrates, chlorates and phosphates
  58. What are the limitation of infrared spectroscopy?
    Cannot definitively identify biological agents, metals and non-metals, and simple ionic salt.
  59. How is infrared spectroscopy used?
    Chemicals absorb infrared light.

    The pattern of absorption is unique to a chemical.

    Pattern is called a spectrum.

    Will match the spectrum of the sample to a library.

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  60. What are the capabilities of ion mobility spectroscopy?
    Capable of detecting and identifying very low concentrations of chemicals based upon the differential migration of gas phase ions through a homogenous electric field.
  61. What are the limitations of ion mobility spectroscopy?
    There are a number of interference’s that can have drift times similar to different chemical agents that can result in false-positives.
  62. How is the ion mobility spectroscopy used?
    The IMS is a point detection system which uses either a radioactive source or corona discharge to drive the sample test process. The IMS chemical detectors are important in first response when fast and accurate information is necessary.

    A common technology used in military and civilian applications.

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  63. What are the capabilities of gamma spectrometer?
    Performs qualitative and quantitative analysis of gamma radiation capable of identifying gamma-emitting isotopes.

    Many include a dose rate measurement feature.

    Identifies radioactive nuclides based on measured gamma ray spectra.
  64. What are the limitations of a gamma spectrometer?
    Susceptible to temperature variation.
  65. How is the gamma spectrometer used?
    Used to search for radioactive gamma sources or for areas of contamination with gamma radio nuclides.

    A common technology used in medical, industrial, law enforcement, natural, and military applications.

    Field Calibration: Automatic calibration for some, or IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  66. What are the capabilities of a metal oxide detector?
    Metal oxides based chemical sensors are devices that translate the changes in the concentration of gaseous chemical species into electrical signals.

    Quantifying compounds in concentration below less than 1 ppm.

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  67. What are the capabilities of photoionization detectors?
    Detects concentrations of organic and inorganic gases and vapors. Unit can be calibrated for specific chemicals if chemical is known.

    Can be used to measure toxic exposure.

    Used for both emergency and remedial operations as a general survey instrument.
  68. What are the limitations to photoionization detectors?
    Reading is dependent upon calibration. Most commonly calibrated on isobutylene.

    Does not detect methane.

    Readings may change when gases are mixed.

    Radio frequencies, power lines, and transformers may affect response.

    Dust and high humidity can block transmission of UV light, causing reduction in instrument reading.
  69. How is a photoionization detector used?
    Sample is exposed to ultraviolet light that ionizes the sample. Ions are collected, amplified, and produce a current which is read on a display as total organic vapors present (in ppm).

    Ionization Potential (IP) of the ultraviolet lamp is critical. The 10.2 or 10.6 eV lamps are often used for emergency response purposes, because of their durability.

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  70. What are the capabilities of polymerase chain reaction?
    A highly sensitive technique by which minute quatities of specific Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or Ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences can be enzymatically amplified to the extent that a sufficient quantity of material is available to reach a threshold “signal” for detection.
  71. What are the limitations to polymerase chain reaction?
    Cannot differentiate between live and dead organisms.

    Cost and limited field use.
  72. How are used polymerase chain reaction used?
    Applications for PCR include molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, archeology, forensics, amplification of unknown sequences, clinical pathology, genetic diagnosis, characterizing unknown mutations, fingerprinting / population analysis, genome analysis, and quantitative PCR of RNA or DNA.

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  73. What are the capabilities of radiation detection measurement instruments?
    Used to monitor alpha, beta neutron particles and gamma rays.

    There are a number of different probes available to differentiate between alpha, beta, and gamma.
  74. What are the limitations to radiation detection and measurement instruments?
    No response does not equal clean!

    Electromagnetic fields can give “false positive”

    Measurements can be affected by wind, shielding, etc.

    Can measure gamma rays and will detect but not measure other forms of radiation.

    Passive dosimeter are product specific and other chemicals may interfere with their reading.
  75. How is the radiation detection and measurement instrument used?
    Reading provided in cpm, rem, and mR/hr

    Typical background radiation is 0.01-0.05 mR/hr.

    Many probes are available (Geiger-Mueller most common). Designed to differentiate between gamma and beta, but will not detect alpha.

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  76. What are the capabilities of Raman spectroscopy?
    Rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as explosives, unknown chemicals, narcotics, or toxic industrial chemicals.

    Commonly used in chemistry since in chemistry since information is specific for chemical bonds in molecules. (provides fingerprint the molecule can be identified by)
  77. What are the limitations to Raman Spectroscopy?
    Do not use external laser on flammable, explosive materials or dark surfaces
  78. How is the Raman spectroscopy used?
    Product can be analyzed in glass vials, or plastic bags; greatly reducing possibility of evidence corruption, cross contamination, or risk to response personnel.

    Raman spectroscopy is extremely information rich (useful for chemical identification, characterization of molecular structures, effects of bonding, environment and stress on a sample)

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  79. What are the capabilities of surface acoustical wave (SAW)?
    SAW devices are recognized for their versatility and efficiency in controlling and processing electrical signals.

    Able to detect the presence of blister and nerve agents at same time.
  80. What are the limitations of surface acoustical wave (SAW)?
    Most units must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft tip stylus.

    Not completely sealable, can be affected by large amounts of dirt, dust, and / or water in the environment.

    Cost and temperature dependent.
  81. How is the surface acoustical wave (SAW) used?
    Sensor applications include all areas of sensing (such as chemical, optical, thermal, pressure, acceleration, torque and biological)

    Field Calibration: IAW devices specifications

    Minor Field Maintenance: IAW manufacturer specifications
  82. What are the capabilities of wet chemistry?
    Chemistry is generally done in liquid phase.

    It is also known as bench chemistry because many of the tests performed are done at a lab bench.
  83. What are the limitations to wet chemistry?
    Limited field use

    Requires special training (chemist)

    It involves the use of laboratory glassware, such as beakers and flasks, and excludes quantitative chemical analysis using instrumentation.
  84. How is wet chemistry used?
    Provides qualitative chemical analysis, such as changes in color (calorimetry), but often involves more quantitative chemical analysis.

    Field Calibration: N/A

    Minor Field Maintenance: N/A

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Author:
DianaKarlova
ID:
332846
Filename:
HazMat Technician Training Equipment
Updated:
2017-07-12 03:10:25
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HazMat Technician CHEM BOLC
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HazMat Technician course note cards on equipment
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