HazMat Technician Training: Techniques for HazMat / WMD Control

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The flashcards below were created by user DianaKarlova on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. Define Absorption
    Process by which materials hold liquids.

    Sand and soil can be used to assist HazMat control but best suited for equipment, not people.

    Readily available but must be disposed of quickly because absorbents retain properties of material absorbed.
  2. How can absorption be used to reduce hazards?
    Process by which materials hold liquids.

    Sand and soil can be used to assist HazMat control but best suited for equipment, not people.

    Readily available but must be disposed of quickly because absorbents retain properties of material absorbed.
  3. Define Adsorption
    Adsorption is the chemical method of decontamination involving interactions of hazardous liquid and a solid sorbent surface that stays rigid, with no volume increase.

    Adsorption produces heat and can cause spontaneous combustion.

    Adsorbents must be disposed of properly.

    Examples include charcoal, silica or aluminum gel, fuller's earth, porous clay, and other clays.
  4. What are example materials used for adsorption?
    Adsorption is the chemical method of decontamination involving interactions of hazardous liquid and a solid sorbent surface that stays rigid, with no volume increase.

    Adsorption produces heat and can cause spontaneous combustion.

    Adsorbents must be disposed of properly.

    Examples include charcoal, silica or aluminum gel, fuller's earth, porous clay, and other clays.
  5. What are the dangers of adsorption?
    Adsorption is the chemical method of decontamination involving interactions of hazardous liquid and a solid sorbent surface that stays rigid, with no volume increase.

    Adsorption produces heat (friction) and can cause spontaneous combustion.

    Adsorbents must be disposed of properly.

    Examples include charcoal, silica or aluminum gel, fuller's earth, porous clay, and other clays.
  6. Define Blanketing
    Tank blanketing or padding refers to applying a blanket of gas over a hazardous material (typically liquid).

    Blanketing may prevent liquid from vaporizing or reduce ignition potential of material

    The purpose is to protect or contain the stored product or prevent it from harming personnel. equipment, and / or environment.
  7. Define Covering
    Covering is the physical method of confinement. It is a temporary measure until more effective tactics can be implemented.

    Effective in preventing aerosolization.
  8. Define Damming
    A physical method of confinement by which barriers are constructed to prevent or reduce quantity of liquid flowing in the environment. (limit water flow)

    Consists of constructing a barrier across a waterway to stop / control product flow and pick up the liquid or solid contaminants.
  9. What are the two types of dams?
    • Underflow Dam:
    • -trap lighter than water materials (specific gravity <1)

    • Overflow Dam:
    • -used to trap heavier than water materials (specific gravity >1)

    • -constructed such that uncontaminated water can flow through
    • -both are earthen dams built around a cylinder
    • -most effective on slow moving and relatively narrow waterways
  10. Define Diking
    Diking is the physical method of confinement by which barriers are constructed on the ground to control movement of liquids, sludge, solids, and other materials.
  11. Define Dilution
    Reducing the concentration of contaminant, best used on materials that are miscible with water (Cl, ammonia).

    Advantage - solutes like water, available in large quantities

    Disadvantage - runoff must be collected and disposed of
  12. What are the advantages and disadvantages to dilution?
    Reducing the concentration of contaminant, best used on materials that are miscible with water (Cl, ammonia).

    Advantage - solutes like water, available in large quantities

    Disadvantage - runoff must be collected and disposed of
  13. Define Dispersion
    Dispersion is the chemical method of confinement by which chemical or biological agents are used to disperse or break up material involved in liquid spills on water.

    May result in spreading hazardous material over larger area.
  14. Define Diversion
    Diversion is the physical method of confinement by which barriers are constructed on the ground or placed in a waterway to intentionally control the movement of hazardous material into area that poses less harm to community and environment.
  15. Define Neutralization
    Neutralizers alter a contaminent chemically so that the resulting chemical becomes harmless. This in turn also reduces problem of disposal.

    But neutralization should be monitored.
  16. Define Overpacking
    Overpacking is a physical method for containment in which leaking or damaged container, drum, or vessel is placed inside a larger, specially constructed container to confine any further release of product.

    Overpack container should be compatible with release material. Also may require forklift.
  17. Define Patching
    Patches are placed over the breach and held there in order to repair leaks, holes, rips or tears in container shells, piping systems, and valves.

    It is important to consider specific conditions, container pressure, and chemical compatibility when determining patch device.
  18. What are the key considerations when determining what patch to use?
    Patches are placed over the breach and held there in order to repair leaks, holes, rips or tears in container shells, piping systems, and valves.

    It is important to consider specific conditions, container pressure, and chemical compatibility when determining patch device.
  19. Define Plugging
    Process of plugging involves inserting, driving, or screwing a chemically compatible object into the breach of a container to reduce or temporarily stop flow.

    Strength of material, size of hole, and potential inner pressure should be considered.

    Reason for release should be determined prior to plugging, in order to prevent potential for a more violent rupture.
  20. What are some considerations to be taken into account before plugging?
    Process of plugging involves inserting, driving, or screwing a chemically compatible object into the breach of a container to reduce or temporarily stop flow.

    Strength of material, size of hole, and potential inner pressure should be considered.

    Reason for release should be determined prior to plugging, in order to prevent potential for a more violent rupture.
  21. Define Solidification
    Commercial products are available that cause certain liquids to solidify. It allows responders to confine a small spill quickly.

    Catalyst can act as solidifier.
  22. Define Retention
    Retention is physical confinement by which a liquid is temporarily contained in an area where it can be absorbed, neutralized, or picked up for disposal.

    Temporary but intended to be permanent.
  23. What are the risks to pressure isolation and reduction?
    (Flaring, venting, vent and burn, and isolation of valves, pumps, or energy)

    Pressure isolation and reduction is a physical or chemical method of containment by which the internal pressure of closed container is reduced.

    The tactical objective is to reduce the flow or minimize potential of container failure.

    These are high risk operations that require responders to work in close proximity to the container.
  24. What is the objective for pressure isolation and reduction?
    (Flaring, venting, vent and burn, and isolation of valves, pumps, or energy)

    Pressure isolation and reduction is a physical or chemical method of containment by which the internal pressure of closed container is reduced.

    The tactical objective is to reduce the flow or minimize potential of container failure.

    These are high risk operations that require responders to work in close proximity to the container.
  25. Define Pressure Isolation and Reduction
    (Flaring, venting, vent and burn, and isolation of valves, pumps, or energy)

    Pressure isolation and reduction is a physical or chemical method of containment by which the internal pressure of closed container is reduced.

    The tactical objective is to reduce the flow or minimize potential of container failure.

    These are high risk operations that require responders to work in close proximity to the container.
  26. Define Transfer
    Transfer is the process of physically moving a liquid, gas or some forms of solids either manually, by pump or by pressure transfer, from a leaking or undamaged container.

    Usually conducted by technician with a tank car specialty, cargo tank specialty, or intermodal tank specialty; clean up company; or by personnel from shipper or manufacturer.
  27. Who typically conducts transfer's?
    Transfer is the process of physically moving a liquid, gas or some forms of solids either manually, by pump or by pressure transfer, from a leaking or undamaged container.

    Usually conducted by technician with a tank car specialty, cargo tank specialty, or intermodal tank specialty; clean up company; or by personnel from shipper or manufacturer.
  28. Define Vapor Dispersion and Vapor Suppression
    Vapor Dispersion: physical method of control by which water spray or fans are used to reduce concentration of gas bellow the lower flammable limit and also disperse or move vapors from certain areas or materials.

    Vapor Suppression: physical method of control to reduce or eliminate the vapors emanating from a spilled or released material.

Card Set Information

Author:
DianaKarlova
ID:
332872
Filename:
HazMat Technician Training: Techniques for HazMat / WMD Control
Updated:
2017-07-13 04:40:55
Tags:
HazMat Technician CHEM BOLC
Folders:
CHEM BOLC
Description:
Terms for procedures, equipment, and safety precautions used with techniques for HazMat / WMD control
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