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How are communication effected during an incident and in full level A suit? What is effective in solving the problem?
- -speaking over hand held radios difficult
- -person to person communication impossible
- -throat or bone mike most effective in overcoming the problem
- -establish hand arm signals
Responders in full gear should be closely monitored for loss of...
- -mobility and dexterity
- -communication capabilities
- -suit integrity
What level suit should back-up personnel wear?
Same level protection suit as responders
When should rehabilitiaion programs be established? What do they allow?
Rehabilitation programs should be established prior to working in the hot zone.
- They allow for:
- -replenishment of fluids
- -allow for rest and recovery
What is the difference between SOP and SOG?
- SOP - followed in order
- SOG - more of a guideline
What are 4 emergency problems that can occur for personnel working in vapor protective clothing?
- -loss of air supply
- -loss of suit integrity
- -loss of verbal communications
- -man down in hot zone
What should reference for maintenance, storage, inspection, and testing procedures of protective equipment?
What should be recorded in a log book?
- -maintenance procedures
- -testing procedures
- -inspection procedures
- -storage procedures
What are the bulk / non-bulk pressure vessel leaks that a HazMat tech can control?
- -fusible metal plugs and plug threads
- -side wall cylinders
- -valve (blowout, gland, inlet thread, seat, stem assembly blowout)
What are the 4 types of leaks that can occur on a drum?
- -bung leak (on bungs)
- -chime leak (on chime ring)
- -fork lift puncture
- -nail puncture
(flammability should be considered for all)
What is the most difficult drum leak to deal with?
What are the three overpack techniques?
- -Rollers (rolling slide-in)
- -V-shape (slide-in)
- -Upside down (slip over)
What are the safety considerations for overpacking a 55 gal drum?
- -overpack / recovery drums must be compatible with the product
- -use proper lifting techniques to avoid strain
- -use caution when moving drums to reduce possibility of injuries to hands and feet
- -always use appropriate PPE and respiratory equipment
What is another name for a DOT dome clamp? What is it used for?
Used for 406, 407, 412
What are the safety precautions to approaching a leak from a dome?
- -eliminate ignition source
- -must come from upwind
- -control and confine
What are proper maintenance procedures for tools and equipment?
Follow the procedures outlined by the manufacturer of the equipment provided by the AHJ
What are proper inspection procedures for tools and equipment?
Follow the procedures outlined by the manufacturer of the equipment provided by the AHJ
Results for checking the area for contamination should always be confirmed with another source except two. What are they?
What are the consideration for assessing a leak or spill inside a confined space without entering an area?
- Oxygen-deficient (bellow 19.5%)
- Flammable or toxic atmosphere
- Engulfment hazard
What are the safety considerations for product transfer operations?
- -elimination of ignition sources
Define binding in product transfer operations
The process of connecting two or more conductive objects together by means of a conductor; it is done to minimize potential differences between conductive objects, thereby minimizing or eliminating the chance of static pressure.
Define grounding in product transfer operations
The process of connecting 1 or more conductive objects to the ground through a grounding rod. It is done to minimize or eliminate potential differences between objects and ground.
Use OHM meter
What are the four leaks to a 406, 407, 412 cargo tank and what can be used to fix it?
Dome cover leak: specially designed dome clamps
Irregular-shaped hole: use compatible patches
Puncture: use compatible patches
Split or tear: use compatible patches
Before a product inside is transferred, what must considered?
- -inherent risk associated with such operations
- -procedures and safety precautions
- -equipment required (you must have appropriate equipment; more important than personnel)
What are the methods by which you do a product transfer for 406, 407, 412, 331 and 338 cargo tanks?
- 406, 407, 412:
- -vacuum trucks
- -power take off (PTO) pumps
- -portable pumps (air, electrical gasoline, diesel)
- 331, 338:
- Pressure transfer including:
- -compressed air or inert gas
- -vapor pressure
- -vapor compressor
- -vapor compressor and a liquid pump
When determining the effectiveness of action options, what should you check for?
- -the effectiveness of how HazMat response personnel are being used
- -established control zones
- -containment or confinement operations
- -decontamination process
What must the responder ask themselves when evaluating the effectiveness of control functions?
- -is the incident stabilizing?
- -is the incident increasing in intensity?
- -ongoing process by all personnel
When should HMTs withdraw to a safe location?
When they have no reason to remain on the site, and nothing can be done to mitigate the situation
What should you check for when evaluating the decontamination process?
- -contamination levels are reduced as personnel move thru decontamination
- -contaminated items are controlled and collected for disposal
What is technical decontamination?
The process subsequent to gross decontamination designed to remove contaminants from responders, their equipment, and victims.
It is intended to minimize the spread of contamination and ensure responder safety along with verification that no HazMat enters the cold zone.
What are the three types of decontamination?
- -Emergency decon
- -Mass decon
- -Technical decon
What is emergency decon?
It can occur at any point for rapid reduction of agent from skin. It does not eliminate secondary decontamination.
What is mass decon?
Rapid reduction of agent from skin of many contaminated victims. It is performed as quickly as possible while also practicing contamination avoidance.
What is technical decon?
Deliberate decontamination of responders, equipment, and evidence.
It emphasizes neutralization of the agent. Speed is not a factor.
When the agent is unknown, what does OSHA require wearing?
Positive pressure SCBA
What setting should the water be during decon?
High volume, low pressure (so contaminates do not permeate protective equipment and get on skin)
At what temperature shold a dry method be considered for decon?
What are the methods of decon?
How should ambulatory victims be organized?
- After evacuating the upwind and uphill of a hazard...
- -separate the victims who are showing symptoms (symptomatic) from those not showing symptoms (asymptomatic)
- -collect personnel items
- -provide special consideration for families, small children, elderly, and special need persons
What are the physical methods of decontamination?
Involves the physical removal of contaminant from the contaminated person. Generally the chemical properties remain unchanged.
- -brushing and scraping
- -isolation and disposal
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via absorption?
- -absorbents readily available
- -may be suitable to decontaminate equipment and surrounding area more than for decontaminating personnel
- -absorbed contaminant remains hazardous
- -requires PPE when handling absorbed contaminant
- -limited application for decontaminating personnel
- Soil, sand, absorbent pillow / pads
What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via brushing and scraping?
- PHYSICAL METHOD
- Advantages:-can be used with wet and dry decon methods and performed on equipment, personnel, and PPE
- -while this method can reduce contaminants concentration, contaminant remains unchanged
- -contaminant must be controlled to protect people, property, and environment
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via isolation and disposal?
(a form of dry decon, to remove contaminated items and transport them to a disposal facility)
- -eliminates immediate threat to people, property, environment
- -requires encapsuating item for transport
- -cross contamination risk
- removing contaminated cover from monitoring equipment and disposing of it in the waste
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via vacuuming?
(sucking contaminant from surface)
- -effective for removing granular size particles from hard to reach surfaces
- -won't cause increase in volume of hazard
- -static electricity and fine dust created in the process can cause an explosion
- -specialized equipment required
- Examples:-vacuuming up particles from an explosion that had created or contained radioactive particles
What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via washing?
(remove contaminant with water or soapy water)
- -easiest way to decon since resources readily available
- -materials not soluble in water can be washed with detergents
- -hazards not neutralized, just suspended in water
- -control of hazardous runoff
What are the chemical methods of decontamination?
Using chemical methods to destroy or inactivate agent.
- -chemical degradation
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via adsorption?
(contaminant sticks to sorbent surface)
-if applied in correct quantity it can leave less residual contamination than absorption
-creates heat that could cause spontaneous combustion
- -not normally readily available
- Activated charcoal, silica or aluminum gel, fuller's earth, other clays, porous clays
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via chemical degredation?
(to let contaminant degrade itself over time by allowing it to age)
- ADVANTAGES: -inexpensive
- -reduces or eliminates resource requirements
- -requires sufficient time for the material to degrade itself over time by allowing it to age
- -weather and location of the spill must be favorable
- EXAMPLES:-evaporation of a flammable liquid
- -chlorine based products lose potency in air over time
- -destruction of etiological contamination by UV light
- -declining levels of radioactivity
What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via disinfection?
(the process used to destroy the majority
of recognized pathogenic material)
-increasing importance due to bio and chem threats
-does not cause complete destruction of microorganism
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via neutralization?
(too add a chemical or contaminant, in order to change its chemical structure, with the goal of eliminating or rendering it harmless)
-eliminates contaminates toxicity and thereby eliminating secondary threats
-the neutralizing chemical may not be readily available, which could pose a problem if time is of the essence in controlling the spread of hazard
- Neutralizing a corrosive with a weak product of the opposite power of hydrogen (pH)
What are the advantages and limitations of decontamination via solidification?
(to add a chemical to the contaminant that will convert its physical state from liquid to solid)
-makes confinement, containment quicker, and disposal easier
- -lowers or eliminates the containment's vapor hazard
-could pose additional problems when liquid contaminant increases in volume as it solidifies
- -the resulting solid must be disposed of properly when the incident is over
Adding a catalyst to a liquid substance in order to harden it.
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via sterilization?
(the process of destroying all
microorganisms in or on object)
-preferred method of decontaminate medical equipment
-limited field application due to size of equipment
- -cannot be used to decontaminate personnel
Steam, concentrated chemical agents, or ultraviolet light radiation
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via dilution?
(to lower the concentration of a miscible liquid containment, by adding non-hazardous liquid solution)
-if the diluting solution is water, it is readily available in large quantities
- -especially effective on water-soluble items
-some containment require an inordinate amount of dilution solution
- -run-off must be collected and disposed of properly
- -could create large amounts of diluted waste
Decontaminating a piece of equipment by flushing it with copious amounts of water.
What are the advantages, limitations, plus examples of decontamination via evaporation?
(to allow contaminant to evaporate)
-no resources are required
, no approach needed by people
-there must be sufficient time to evaporate
- -weather conditions must favor evaporation
- -not as effective as porous surfaces and could take a long
Allowing a large a large amount of gasoline to to evaporate.
What three categories do decontaminants fall under?
Miscellaneous (commercial, easily expended and not readily replaceable so responders must understand them)
When resources are low, what is the decontaminant of choice?
- Soap and water
- Household bleach (full strength 5 but should be diluted to 0.5 or 1:10)
What is UV light capable of killing (for decontamination)?
Biological agents (but NOT spores)
Removing the clothing during decontamination removes how much contamination approximately?
50% to 80% contamination
When setting up technical decontamination corridor, where should it be established?
Away from the emergency decontamination corridor
True or False:
Emergency decontamination is a formal decontamination process.
False, it is gross decon only
What organizations control waste management?
What are the 4 places you can go for help in technical decon?
- 1) best source is manufacturer of product
- 2) CHEMTREC / CANUTEC / SETIQ
- 3) local and regional poison control
- 4) national response center
The ultimate responsibility for decontamination plan falls under who?
Define Technical Decontamination
The planned and systematic process of reducing contamination level that is as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
How many individuals should man the decon line?
Who determines the degree of decontamination?
What are the methods that may be useful in assessing the effectiveness of decontamination?
- Visual observations (stains, corrosive effects)
- Monitoring devices
- Wipe sampling
What are the three fundamental stages of decontamination?
- Primary (Gross contamination removal)
- Secondary (Residual contamination removal)
- Tertiary (PPE removal and personal shower)
What kind of patients do decontamination operations involve?
What is the process overview for technical decontamination involving ambulatory and non-ambulatory victims?
- -separate ambulatory and non-ambulatory
- -select appropriate decon method based on contaminant
- -protect airways and injuries appropriately
- -collect and tag possessions, as appropriate (it becomes evidence)
What is the focus of mass decontamination?
The physical removal of the contaminant.
During mass decon, what should be distributed to victims for secondary decontamination?
What are the three most important reasons for decontaminating exposed victims?
- -Removing the agent from the victims skin, thus reducing agent exposure and physical effects
- -Protect emergency responders, medical personnel and others from secondary transfer exposure
- -Preventing victims from spreading contamination over additional areas
What are the 5 basic steps for the process of mass decontamination?
- 1) initial size-up
- 2) victim control and decontamination triage
- 3) decontamination setup
- 4) mass decontamination conduct
- 5) post decontamination
What procedure should be used to wash the victim?
What are three components to debriefing?
When should a debrief take place?
It should be identified in LERP or SOPs and as soon as practical so that responders have a fresh recall of the incident details.
It does not have to be conducted at same time with everyone.
Who should be involved in the debrief?
Identified in LERPs and SOPs
Should involve all participants
What are the three components to an effective critique?
Who should be involved in the critique?
Identified in LERP and SOPs
Representatives responding agencies or groups that were on the scene participating in the operations or command functions
Individuals responsible for training, revising SOP, and ERP
What written documents should be prepared as a result of a critique?
- -Identified in LERP and SOP
- -A written critique report
- -Site safety plan
- -Written elements of the plan of action
- -All hazardous materials teams can benefit from published / publishing critiques in any of the national emergency service magazines
Who should the exposures of HazMat be reported to?
What is the exposure information found in a log book?
- -type of exposure people where subjected to
- -the exposure level and length (hot zone entry / exit logs)
- -type of PPE used
- -type of decon underwent by personnel
- -any on scene medical assistance received