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The only fluid connective tissue in the body.
Blood is a thick homogenous liquid that has these two types of components.
- Cellular - erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
- Liquid - plasma
The ratio of cells to liquid.
A non-liquid component of blood that:
1. transports oxygen
2. serves in protection
3. help stop bleeding
- 1. erythrocytes
- 2. leukocytes
- 3. platelets
A normal hematocrit:
3. leukocytes and platelets
- 1. 45%
- 2. 55% males: 47 +/- 5% females: 42 +/- 5%
- 3. less than 1%
The color of blood ranges from scarlet to dark red depending on the content of this.
A sticky, opaque fluid with a characteristic metallic taste.
Blood is five times thicker than water due to this.
Blood is slightly alkaline with a pH range of...
7.35 - 7.45
The temperature of blood is slightly higher than body temperature at...
38 C / 100.4 F
Percentage of body weight that is attributed to blood volume.
8% males: 5 to 6 L females: 4 to 5 L
Three major functions of blood.
Three ways that blood serves in distribution.
- O2 from lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract to all cells
- Metabolic waste to elimination sites (lungs to release CO2, kidneys to release nitrogenous waste in urine)
- Hormones from endocrine glands to target areas
Bloods main regulatory function.
Two ways in which blood serves in protection.
- Blood loss prevention (clot formation)
- Prevent infection (antibodies, complement proteins, WBC vs. foreign invaders, bacteria, viruses)
Blood plasma is a straw-colored, sticky fluid that is composed of 90%...
8% of plasma volume is proteins, which are mostly produced by this organ.
This accounts for 60% of plasma proteins. Is a carrier to shuttle certain molecules, an important blood buffer, and plays a major role in plasma osmotic pressure.
Leukocytes (WBC) can be divided in to two main categories.
First responder of WBCs. Highest concentration.
Small cells that are shaped like biconcave discs. Has a plasma membrane and is anucleate. Has hemoglobin. Contributes to blood viscosity.
Hemoglobin is a protein found in RBCs that functions in the transport of...
This protein is deformable. Helps RBCs maintain their shape and return to normal shape after squeezing through small capillaries.
Characteristics of RBCs that contribute to gas transportation.
- Size and shape (more surface area:volume)
- Hemoglobin (over 97%)
- Absence of mitochondria = anaerobic ATP = don't consume oxygen
Percentage of CO2 that gets transported to the lungs.
Hemoglobin is globin bound to a...
This consists of 4 polypeptide chains. Two alpha, two beta. Each chain is bound to a ring like heme group.
Each heme group bears an atom of this element in its center.
The presence of hemoglobin in RBC prevents
- RBCs from breaking into fragments that would leak out of the bloodstream.
- RBCs from contributing to viscosity and osmotic pressure.
O2 binds to iron in hemoglobin, 3D shape, ruby red.
O2 detaches from iron, hemoglobin takes on biconcave shape, deoxyhemoglobin/reduced hemoglobin, becomes dark red.
The formation of erythrocytes is called...
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis
Where hematopoiesis occurs.
In bone marrow, found in adults in the bones of the axial skeleton and girdles and the proximal epiphyses of the humerus and femur.
4 types of cells found in bone marrow.
- immature blood cells
- fat cells
- reticular cells (secrete fibers)
Mature RBC enter the blood stream by crossing the thin walls of this.
Average daily production of new blood.
One ounce (100 billion cells)
Type of stem cell found in red marrow.
Hemocytoblast (pleuripotent hematopoietic stem cell)
Hemocytoblasts membrane receptor cells respond to specific hormones or growth factors that push a cell towards this.
This begins when a hemocytoblast descendant called a myeloid stem cell is transformed into a proerythroblast.
The process of erythropoiesis, from hemocytoblast to reticulocyte takes how many days?
Process of erythropoiesis:
Hemocytoblast (stem cell)
Proerythroblast (committed cell)
Phase 1 of development? (early erythroblast)
Phase 2? (late erythroblast/normoblast)
Phase 3? (normoblast/reticulocyte)
- Phase 1: ribosome synthesis
- Phase 2: hemoglobin accumulation
- Phase 3: ejection of nucleus
Hormones and levels of iron, amino acids, and certain B vitamins can affect this.
This glycoprotein hormone is produced by the kidneys (and small amount by liver)and circulates in blood at all times and sustains RBC production at a basal rate.
4 triggers for EPO formation
- drop in O2 levels
- reduced RBC due to hemorrhage or excessive destruction
- insufficient hemoglobin per RBC (iron deficiency)
- reduced availability of O2 (high altitudes, pneumonia)
Controls the absorption of iron from diet in response to changing body stores.
Appx. 65% of the body's iron supply is in this. Iron is also found in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
Iron is stored inside cells as protein-iron complexes such as these two.
Transport protein that loosely binds to iron in the blood. Erythrocytes take up the iron to form hemoglobin.
RBC disorder in which blood has a low oxygen-carrying capacity.
Three common causes of anemia.
- insufficient number of RBCs (hemorrhagic, hemolytic, aplastic)
- low hemoglobin content (nutritional)
- abnormal hemoglobin (genetic)
Anemia typically in mediterranean people. A globin chain is absent or faulty, RBC are thin, delicate, hemoglobin deficient.
Abnormal hemoglobin that result in one change of the 287 amino acids in a beta chain of a globin. Low O2 = stiff rods form making hemoglobin spiky and sharp. RBCs become crescents.
Abnormal excess of RBCs. Increases blood viscosity. Severe cases are treated with blood dilution (removing blood, replacing with saline)
Type of polycythemia. A bone marrow cancer. Causes dizziness, hematocrit up to 80%, may double blood volume, and high RBC count (8-11 million)
Type of polycythemia. Less available O2 or increased EPO production. High altitudes, a normal physiological respose, RBC count of 6-8 million.
The only formed elements that are complete cells. Crucial to defense against disease. Move by amoeboid motion. Destroy foreign substances or dead cells (endocytosis).
WBCs slipping out of the capillary blood vessels for inflammatory or immune responses is called...
WBCs following the trail left by damaged or infected cells.
The production of WBCs.
These are larger, spherical, short-lived leukocytes with lobed nuclei, granules, and are phagocytes.
50-70% of WBCs. Neutral-loving granulocyte. Granules contain enzymes and defensins. 3 to 6 lobes. Kills by respiratory burst (releases bleach, hydrogen peroxide, defensin). Numbers increase during bacterial infections.
2-4% of WBC. Dark red nucleus with 2 lobes. Granules contain unique digestive enzymes. Attack parasitic worms. Lessen severity of allergies.
Rarest WBC, up to 1%. Granules contain histamine. U or S shaped nucleus. Base loving.
Two types of agranulocytes (lack granules).
Agranulocyte that is 25% or more of WBCs. LARGE dark purple nucleus. Rest in lymphoid tissues (lymph nodes, spleen, etc). T cells (vs. virus-infected and tumor cells) and B cells (give rise to plasma cells to produce antibodies).
3-8% of WBC. Largest leukocytes. U or kidney shaped nucleus. Enter the tissues to form highly mobile macrophages. Macrophages activate lymphocytes to mount the immune response.
Overproduction of abnormal leukocytes occurs in these two disorders.
- infectious mononucleosis
Disorder - underproduction of abnormal leukocytes. Abnormally low WBC count. Induced by drugs (glucocorticoids, anticancer agents)
Disorders involving cancerous conditions involving WBCs. Bone marrow is totally occupied by cancerous leukocytes and immature WBCs flood into bloodstream. WBCs are nonfunctional. Death by internal hemorrhage and serious infections.
Two types of leukemias:
Leukocyte disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Excessive numbers of atypical agranulocytes. Highly contagious viral disease, seen in young adults. Low fever, chronic sore throat, tiredness, achiness.
Are cytoplasmic fragments of large cells, megakaryocytes. Purple staining granules contain chemicals for clotting (serotonin, Ca, enzymes, ADP, and PDGF). Anucleate, degenerate in 10 days if not involved in clotting.
Platelets circulate freely and are kept mobile but inactive by molecules (nitric oxide, prostacyclin) secreted by these type of cells lining the blood vessels.
This hormone regulates platelet formation.
Stem cell (hemocytoblast)
Developmental pathway (1... 2... 3...)
Immediate response to blood vessel injury.
The process of dissolving a clot. Involves the fibrin-digesting enzyme, plasmin (from plasminogen).
Anticoagulants (citrate or oxalate salts) prevent clotting when mixed with blood by binding with these type of ions.
The shelf life of collected blood at 4 C.
About 35 days.