Amphibious Operations

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Amphibious Operations
2010-09-07 22:36:23

Naval Warfare Publication (NWP) 3-02.1 Ship To Shore Movement
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  1. Amphibious Command Ship (LCC) Blue Ridge Class

    Amphibious Command Ships is to provide Command, Control, Communicates, and Intelligence (C4I) for Fleet Commanders.

    An Amphibious Command Ship resembles a small aircraft carrier because of the ship's relatively flat, clean decks. However, the island is in the middle of the ship. Aft of the island is a large communication mast. Other characteristics include:

    Length (overall) – 620 feet
    Beam – 180 feet
    Displacement (light load) – 16,100 tons
    Displacement (full load) – 18,646 tons
    Draft (full load) – 29 feet
    Main engine (geared turbine) – 1
    Boilers – 2
    Shaft – 1
    Shaft horsepower – 22,000
    Speed – 23 knots
    Range at 16 knots – 13,000 nautical miles
    Staff accommodations – 217
    Crew accommodations – 774
    Ship's chaplain – Yes
    Aircraft – Amphibious Command Ships can accommodate all helicopters except the CH-53 Sea Stallion.
  2. Amphibious Assault Ship (LHA) Tarawa Class

    The Tarawa class has a wet well deck that is 280' long, 30' wide, and expands to 78' aft. A wet well is located in the aft section of all amphibious ships with the exception of Amphibious Command Ships (LCCs), and can be flooded to accommodate the launching and recovering of amphibious craft and amphibious vehicles.
    Other characteristics of the Tarawa class include:

    Length (overall) – 820 feet
    Beam – 106 feet
    Displacement (full load) – 39,400 tons
    Speed – 24 knots
    Crew – 82 officers and 882 enlisted
    Marine detachment – 1,900 plus
    Landing craft – LCU and LCAC
    Aircraft – six AV-8B Harrier attack planes, four AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopters, 12 CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters, four CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters, and three UH-1N Huey helicopters.
  3. Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD) Wasp Class

    The Wasp class ships can carry the following aircraft: AV-8B Harrier attack planes, AH-1W SuperCobra attack helicopters, CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters, CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters, and UH-1N Huey helicopters.

    Other characteristics of the Wasp class include:

    Length (overall) – 844 feet
    Beam – 106 feet
    Displacement (full load) – 40,650 (LHD 1-4), 40,358 tons (LHD 5-7)
    Speed – 20 plus knots
    Crew – 104 officers and 1,004 enlisted
    Marine detachment – 1,894 plus
    Landing craft – LCU, LCM-8, LCAC, and AAV
    Aircraft – six AV-8B Harrier attack planes, four AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopters, 12 CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters, four CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters, and three UH-1N Huey helicopters. Plans include embarking the MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor.
  4. Amphibious Transport Dock (LPD) Austin Class

    The versatile Austin class LPDs provide substantial amphibious lift for Marine troops and their vehicles and cargo. Additionally, they serve as the secondary aviation platform for Expeditionary Strike Groups. The oldest of the class turned 39 in early 2004. As the new San Antonio class LPDs enter service, Austin class LPDs will be decommissioned.
    One distinguishing characteristic of the Austin class is the double row of life boats on the superstructure near the bridge.

    Other characteristics of the Austin class include:

    Length (overall) – 570 feet
    Beam – 84 feet
    Displacement (full load) – 17,000 tons (approximately)
    Speed – 21 knots
    Crew – 24 officers and 396 enlisted
    Marine detachment – 900
    Landing craft – LCU, LCAC, and AAV
    Aircraft – up to six CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters
  5. Dock Landing Ship (LSD) Harpers Ferry Class

    dock, transport, and launch the Navy's amphibious crafts and vehicles with crew and troops to potential hot spots around the world.
    On Harpers Ferry class ships the CIWS is located forward of the RAM launcher.
    Other characteristics of the Whidbey Island class include:

    Length (overall) – 609 feet
    Beam – 84 feet
    Displacement (full load) – 16,708 tons
    Speed – 20 plus knots
    Crew – 22 officers and 397 enlisted
    Marine detachment – 402 (with a surge capacity to 504)
    Landing craft – two LCAC

  6. What class is shown in this pic?
    San Antonio (LPD 17) class
    Harpers Ferry (LSD 49) class
    Wasp (LHD 1) class
    Blue Ridge (LCC 19) class
    Blue Ridge (LCC 19) class

  7. Landing Craft Utility
    LCUs are a self-sustaining craft complete with living accommodations and messing facilities for a crew of ten. Each LCU has its own galley and berthing spaces.
    LCUs have been adapted for many uses including salvage operations, ferry boats for vehicles and passengers, and underwater test platforms.
    The mission of the LCU is to land/retrieve personnel and equipment including tanks, artillery, equipment, and motor vehicles during amphibious operations. LCUs are scheduled to land personnel and provide heavy cargo transport after the initial assault waves of an amphibious operation.
    The LCU has the capability of sustained sea operations for approximately seven days.

  8. Landing Craft Mechanized
    A variation of the LCU is the Mechanized Landing Craft (LCM).

    The LCM is designed for use in rough or exposed waters and can be operated through breakers and can be grounded on the beach. These craft are well suited for raiding operations.

    LCMs transport cargo, troops, and vehicles from ship to shore or in retrograde movements. They are also used in lighter utility work in harbors. LCMs carry the same types of payloads as LCUs, but in smaller amounts.

    These landing craft are responsible for bringing up to 375 tons of tracked and/or wheeled vehicles and troops from the larger assault ships to the beachheads or piers.
    Both bow (front) and stern (back) ramps lower, allowing for quick loading or unloading from either end.

  9. Landing Craft Air Cushion
    The LCAC is designed to ride on a cushion of air and achieve speeds of over 40 KTS on open water and over 20 mph on land. All new LCACs are configured to operate as Mine Warfare assets as required.
    LCACs carry heavy payloads, such as an M-1 tank, at high speeds. The LCAC payload capability and speed combine to significantly increase the ability of the force to reach the shore.
    Air cushion technology allows this vehicle to reach more than 70 percent of the world's coastline, while only about 15 percent of that coastline is accessible by conventional landing craft.
    LCAC operates in waters regardless of depth, underwater obstacles, shallows, or adverse tides. It can proceed inland on its air cushion, clearing obstacles up to four feet, regardless of terrain or topography. This includes mud flats, sand dunes, ditches, marshlands, riverbanks, wet snow, or slippery and icy shorelines.
    Equipment, such as trucks and track vehicles, can disembark via ramps located both forward and aft, thereby shortening critical off load time.
  10. Special Warfare Craft

    Navy Special Warfare Rigid Hull Inflatable Boats (NSW RHIBs) are designed for service as the standard ship's boat and for general purpose use. These boats are high-speed, high-buoyancy, extreme-weather craft with the primary mission of SEAL insertion and extraction.

    The 11-meter-long NSW RHIBs are constructed of composites with an inflatable tube gunwale made of reinforced fabric. NSW RHIBs carry a crew of three and a SEAL element. NSW RHIBs can operate in heavy seas and winds of 45 knots, but for other than heavy-weather training, the Navy limits its use to somewhat milder sea conditions (wind speed is less than 34 knots).
  11. Combat Rubber Raiding Craft
    The Combat Rubber Raiding Craft (CRRC), is a specially fabricated inflatable rubber boat often used by the Navy SEALs and US Marines, among others.
    The boat can be used for over-the-horizon transportation, inserting lightly-armed raiding parties or reconnaissance teams onto beaches, piers, offshore facilities and larger vessels. The CRRC can be inflated in minutes by foot pump, compressor or C02 tank and can be deployed from shore and from the well deck. The CRRC's chief advantages are stealth, versatility, light weight, compact size when stowed, and the safety imparted by its hyper-buoyant nature, which gives it the ability to operate in relatively high seas for a craft of its size.
  12. Lighter, Amphibious Resupply Cargo Five Ton

    The Lighter, Amphibious Resupply Craft Five Ton (LARC V) is an aluminum-hulled, four wheel amphibious vehicle used by Beach Master units (BMU) for salvage operations in shallow water, surf zone and beach.
    The LARC is capable of operating from a wet well but extreme care must be taken to prevent bumping by other craft. It has no watertight integrity and is subject to severe hull damage and flooding if not properly controlled in the well. Wave action and improper line handling while moving craft in the well can result in significant damage.
  13. MV-22B Osprey

    The MV-22B characteristics are:

    Power plant – two pivoting Rolls-Royce/Allison AE1107C engines
    Rotor diameter – 38 feet (11.58 meters)
    Blades per rotor – three
    Weight – 60,500 lbs max gross weight
    Airspeed – 272 knots (cruise speed)
    Ceiling – 25,000 feet (service ceiling)
    Crew – two pilots
    Cargo – 24 troops
  14. AV-8B Harrier II
    The AV-8B's characteristics are:

    Wing span – 30 feet, 3 inches
    Length – 46 feet, 3 inches
    Height – 11 feet, 7 inches
    Weight – empty: 12,800 pounds, maximum for short takeoff – 31,000 pounds, maximum for vertical takeoff – 18,900 pounds
    Speed – 630 mph
    Ferry range – 1,700 nautical miles unrefueled
    Power plant – one Rolls-Royce Pegasus F-402-RR-404 vectored thrust turbofan engine
    Crew – one pilot
  15. UH-1N Iroquois
    The UH-1N Iroquois is a twin-engine combat utility helicopter, capable of land- and sea-based operations. It provides airborne command and control, combat assault support, control of supporting arms, medical evacuation, special operations support, search and rescue augmentation, visual reconnaissance, and shipboard and austere base operations, during day/night and adverse weather conditions.
    The UH-1N's characteristics are:

    Propulsion – two Pratt and Whitney T400-CP-400 turboshaft engines; 1,250 hp (932 kw)
    Length – 57 feet, 0 inches (17 meters)
    Height – 14 feet 5 inches (4.4 meters)
    Rotor Diameter – 48 feet (14.6 meters) with rotors spread
    Weight – empty: 6,000 pounds (2,721.5 kg); maximum takeoff weight – 10,500 pounds (4,762.7 kg)
    Airspeed – max cruise speed is 110 kts (203.7 km/hr)
    Ceiling – 17,300 feet (5,273 meters)
    Range – 286 miles (460 km)
    Crew – pilot, copilot, crew chief, gunner, plus six to eight combat-equipped troops
  16. AH-1Z Super Cobra

    The AH-1 Super Cobra is a two-place, twin-engine attack helicopter capable of land- and sea-based operations. It provides rotary-wing close air support (CAS), anti-armor/anti-helicopter, helicopter escort, armed and visual reconnaissance, control of supporting arms, and shipboard and austere base operations, during day/night and adverse weather conditions.
    The Super Cobra's characteristics are:

    Overall length – 58 feet
    Height – 14 feet, 2 inches
    Weight – maximum takeoff and landing is 16,300 pounds
    Power plant – two GE T700-GE-401 Turboshaft
    Crew – one pilot, one gunner
  17. CH-46E Sea Knight

    The CH-46E Sea Knight is a tandem rotor helicopter designed for all-weather insertion of combat troops and materiel, to support amphibious operations.
    The Sea Knight's characteristics are:

    Length – 45 ft 8 in
    Height – 16 ft 8.5 in (5.1 m)
    Rotor diameter – 51 ft (16 m)
    Empty weight – 15,537 lb (7,047 kg)
    Loaded weight – 17,396 lb (7,891 kg)
    Max takeoff weight – 24,300 lb (11,000 kg)
    Powerplant – two General Electric T58-GE-16 turboshafts
    Crew – two pilots, one crew chief, one aerial gunner/observer
    Capacity – 25 troops
  18. CH-53D Sea Stallion

    The CH-53D Sea Stallion is a medium lift helicopter designed to transport personnel, supplies and equipment in support of amphibious and shore operations.

    The Sea Stallion's characteristics are:

    Propulsion – two General Electric T64-GE-413 turboshaft engines (3,925 shaft horsepower each)
    Length – 67.5 feet (20.3 meters), fuselage
    Rotors turning length – 88 feet 3 inches (26.5 meters)
    Height – 24 feet 11 inches (7.2 meters)
    Rotor Diameter – 72 feet 3 inches (21.7 meters)
    Weight – 21 tons (maximum gross weight)
    Airspeed – 160 knots
    Ceiling – 12,450 feet
    Range – 578 nautical miles (665 statute miles, 1064 km) or 886 nautical miles ferry range
    Crew – two pilots, one aircrewman
    Load – 37 troops or 24 litter patients plus four attendants or 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) cargo
  19. What is a dry well?
    Dry well – a condition where there is no water in the well

  20. What is a Green Well ?
    Green well – when preparations in the well deck are completed and assault craft entry/exit is authorized. Green wells are ordered by the Commanding Officer or the Commanding Officer's designated representative, normally the Debark Control Officer. A green well is indicated by a 3’ X 3’ green flag during the day and a green wand at night.
  21. What is a Red Well?
    • Red well – when conditions in the well are not conducive to safe operations and/or craft are prohibited from entering or departing the well.
    • A red well is indicated by a red speed pennant during the day and a red wand at night.

  22. What is a Ballast?
    • Ballast – water carried temporarily or permanently in a vessel's ballast tanks to provide desired draft and stability. Air is used to deballast a ship by moving water out of the ballast tanks.

  23. Sill – the extreme aft portion of the well deck, normally where the well deck and stern gate meet.
    The sill has two associated terms:

    Depth at the sill – depth of water at extreme aft section of the well
    Water at the sill – ballasted to where the water level is even with the lip of the sill
  24. What does it mean to Crack the Stern Gate?
    Crack the stern gate – the stern gate is open approximately five to ten inches from the closed position as measured at the top of the stern gate.
  25. An amphibious assault is the principle type of amphibious operation involving the establishment of a landing force (LF) on a hostile or potentially hostile shore. The intent of an assault is to create an area where follow up operations can occur further inland.
  26. Demonstration refers to a show of force conducted to deceive with the expectation of deluding the enemy into an unfavorable course of action (COA).
  27. An amphibious raid is a swift incursion into, or a temporary occupation of an objective that is followed by a planned withdrawal.
    Raids are conducted for the following reasons:

    Psychological impact
  28. Withdrawals are the extraction of forces by sea in ships or crafts from a hostile or potentially hostile shore.
  29. What amphibious operation is the principal type of amphibious operation, which involves establishing a force on a hostile or potentially hostile shore?
  30. What amphibious operation is conducted to deceive the enemy by a show of force with the expectation of deluding the enemy into an unfavorable course of action?
  31. What amphibious operation involves swift incursions, or a temporary occupation of an objective, followed by a planned withdrawal?
  32. What amphibious operation involves the extraction of forces by sea in naval ships or craft from a hostile or potentially hostile shore?
  33. 5 Ambhibious stages:

  34. Planning consists of analyses and decisions made in the following areas:

    Landing areas
    Target classification
    Communication requirements
    Movement to the objective area
    Logistic and combat service support
    Ship-to-shore movement
  35. Embarkation assigns the land forces, with equipment and supplies, to designated shipping
  36. The rehearsal stage tests plans, timing, and combat readiness of participating forces
  37. An amphibious movement is the period during which the components of the amphibious task force move from the point of embarkation or from a forward deployed position to the objective area
  38. The amphibious assault is the period between the arrival of the major assault forces to the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission
  39. Naval Beach Group

    Naval Beach Groups (NBGs) consists of permanently organized naval commands within the naval surface force.
  40. Beach Master Unit

    Beach Master Units (BMUs) are organized administratively and tactically into unit headquarters and two beach groups. BMUs are augmented by detachments from ACUs, ACBs, and other elements as deemed necessary.
  41. Beach Master Unit Tasks

    Beach Master Units accomplish several tasks.

    The BMU tasks are:

    Landing craft and small boat traffic control
    Salvage operations
    Beach marking
    Beach-to-ship communications
    Underwater obstruction marking
    Re-embarkation coordination of equipment, troops, and supplies between Shore Party Commanders and Amphibious Task Force Commanders
    Man overboard rescues in the surf zone
  42. Landing Force Markers

    BMUs use marking devices to ensure safe and efficient transfer of personnel and equipment in the landing area.

    BMUs use the following markers to guide the landing force:

    Beach markers
    Range markers
    Unloading point markers
  43. Beach Markers

    Beach markers designate the center and flanks of the landing point.

    The beach markers and their dimensions are:

    Right flank (12 feet by 30 inches)
    Center beach marker (six feet by six feet)
    Left flank (30 inches by 12 feet)
  44. Range Markers

    Range markers designate causeways. Causeways are craft similar in design to barges, but longer and narrower, designed to assist in the discharge and transport of cargo from vessels.

    Range markers are 6' X 6'.
  45. Unloading Point Markers

    Unloading point markers identify the areas for vehicles and supplies at the landing point. The dimensions for the unloading point markers is six feet by six feet
  46. Amphibious Construction Battalion

    Amphibious Construction Battalions (ACBs) supply support to the beach party during initial assault and the early phases of an amphibious landing operation.

    ACBs are tasked with:

    Providing, assembling, operating, and repairing pontoon causeways
    Providing beach salvage teams
    Providing, installing, and operating ship-to-shore bulk fuel systems
  47. Navy Cargo Handling and Port Group (NAVCHAPGRU) is organized under a Fleet Command (e.g., Commander, US Fleet Forces Command [COMFLTFORCOM]).

    NAVCHAPGRUs accomplish the following tasks:

    Immediate supervisory cargo handling
    Emergency port center capabilities to the Fleet Commanders in support of naval operations world wide
  48. Assault Craft Unit

    Assault Craft Units (ACUs) provide Landing Craft, Mechanized (LCM 8), Landing Craft, Utility (LCU), and Landing Craft, Air Cushion (LCAC), lighterage service to the transport group, to assist in ship-to-shore movement.

    The landing craft provided are deployed aboard various amphibious ships.
  49. The ACU provides lighterage service with what landing craft?

    a. LSD
    b. LCU
    c. LCM 8
    d. LCAC
    e. LHA
    • b. LCU
    • c. LCM8
    • d. LCAC