ch 2.txt

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ch 2.txt
2010-09-07 23:15:23

ch 2
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  1. carbohydrates
    • provide most of energy for life, include sugars, starches, glycogen
    • function as food reservoirs (ie: glucose in liver)
    • can be mono, di or polysaccharides
  2. monosaccharide examples
    • pentose sugars - deoxyribose and ribose (deoxy has no OH on one of its carbons, just H)
    • hexoses - glucose, fructose, galactose (6 carbon chains with different arrangements)
  3. disaccharides
    combine 2 monosaccharides through dehydration (water lost) and bond is formed
  4. examples of disaccharides
    • sucrose = glucose + fructose
    • maltose = glucose + glucose
    • lactose = glucose + galactose
  5. lipids
    • combine with proteins for transport in blood
    • have FEW POLAR covalent bonds, hydrophobic, mostly insoluble in H2O
  6. triglyceride
    • most plentiful in body, provides insulation and protection and ENERGY
    • excess stored in adipose tissue
  7. Phospholipids
    • important membrane components - make up phospholipid bilayer - ampipathic
    • non-polar tail (fatty acid chain) and polar head (phosphate group and glycerol)
  8. steroids
    cholesterol - have 4 RINGS, include sex hormones, bile salts and some vitamins
  9. dipeptide
    • formed by amino acids, with a peptide bond
    • 2 amino acids with one peptide bond form a dipeptide
    • polypeptide is multiple amino acids with peptide bonds
  10. how many amino acids until a protein
    50 amino acids, so 49 peptide bonds
  11. nucleic acids
    organic molecules with carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and phosphorous
  12. examples of nucleic acids
    DNA - has a deoxyribose (pentose) sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
  13. RNA
    relays the genetic information from the nucleus to the ribosome where the information is translated into a set of amino acids that form proteins
  14. DNA
    contains the genetic information of each cell that determine many of the activities and functions
  15. ATP synthesis
    ATP synthase (an enzyme) catalyzes the addition of a phosphate to ADP (adenosine di-phosphate becomes adenosine triphosphate)
  16. glucose as energy
    1 glucose molecule can be used as energy to create 36-38 ATP through aerobic respiration (also anaerobic, but not as much ATP during this)