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Geography is the study of ________ things are found on Earth's surface and the ___________ for the locations.
Human geographers ask three questions...
- 1. Where are people and activities found on Earth?
- 2. Why are they found here?
- 3. So what?
A map is a ____________ or ___________ model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
____________ is the science of mapmaking.
Maps serve two purposes...
1. As a _______________ to identify an object's ___________ and _____________ location.
2. As a ________________ to convey the distribution of ____________ or physical features.
- 1. reference tool
- 2. Communications Tool
- Human Activities
- Physical Features
Earliest maps were reference tool- simple _______________ to show a traveler how to get from Point A to Point B.
The first world map was prepared by ______________ 276-194 B.C.)
1. Improvements to world map were later made by __________.
2. After that (referring to the question before), advancements in cartography primarily made outside of Europe by __________ and ___________ world.
3. Mapmaking revived during the ____________________.
- *Age of Exploration and Discovery
Level of detail and the amount of area covered on the map depend on its ___________.
Relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on Earth.
1. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
2. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
- 1. small
- 2. large
*Backwards from how you would think it would work.
Map scale is presented in three ways...
1.____________: Ex. 1:24,000 or 1/24,000
a. Number on left is one unit of distance while the number on the right represents the same unit of distance on Earth's surface.
2. ___________: Ex. 1 inch equals 1 mile
a. Number on left is one unite of distance, while the number on the right represents a different unit of distance on Earth;s surface.
3. _____________: Ussually consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface.
a. Distance between two points can be overlaid on the scarle ar bar to determin3 ht distance on Earth's surface.
- 1. Ratio or Fraction Scale
- 2. Written Scale
- 3. Graphic Scale
The earth is nearly a ________and best represented on a __________.
- Causes several problems:
- a. Small globe is difficult to rite on, photocopy, display on a computer screen, etc.
- b. Large globe is bulky or cumbersome to use.
A _____________ is the scientific method of transferring locations on the Earth's surface to a ___________.
Problems for Projections
1. ALL projections suffer from ___________.
2. __________ of an area can be distorted, so it appears more elongated or squat than in reality.
3. __________ between two points may become increased or descreased.
4. ______________ of different areas may be altered, so that one are may appear larger than another on a mao but is in reality smaller.
5. _____________ from one place to another can be distorted.
- relative size
1. Distorts: __________________
2. Maintains: _________________
a. You rarely see Mercator projections showing all the way to the poles beacuase it is so _____________ at the poles.
b. Africa is actually _______ larger than Greenland.
c. Antarctica is only the _______ largest continent, not ginormous.
- distance, shape, and relative size.
- a. navigating the ocean
- b. not much else (unless you count being rectangular).
- a. distorted
- b. 14 times
- c. 5th
1. Distorts: _____________ (but only a little).
2. Maintains: Nothing! (It's a compromise).
a. Still distorted at _________, but as you move towards the _____________, it quickly becomes much less distorted.
*And who really cares about the poles anyway? (REALLY, not too many people do)
*As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing great.
a. As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing superb.
Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection
1. Distorts: Most obviously, the surface of the Earth is not divided into _________, also distance, direction, shape.
2. Maintains: ______________
a. Very useful in _______ geography because of lack of concern about the _______.
b. Thematic maps about language, population, or government.
c. Or it can be great for ocean geography too!
a. The "_______________" problem is obvious- the map is not ________________.
- a. orange peel
- a. continuous
Geographic grid is a system of imaginary _______ drawn in a grid pattern on EArth's surface.
_________ are arcs drawn between the North and South poles. Each is numbered according to a system known as ___________.
Values range from 0^0 (________________) to 180^0 east or west longitude.
_____________ are arcs drawn parallel to the equator and at right angles to meridians. Each is numbered, according to a system known as __________.
Points on Earth's surface can be communicated by referencing points of _______________ and ________________ intersection.
Values range from 0^0 (equator) to 90^0 north or south.
Further accuracy can be achieved by dividing each degree into 60 ___________ and each minute into 60 __________.
Earth as a sphere is divided into 360 degrees of longitude.
1. Divide 360 degrees by 24 time zones (one for each hour of day) equals ______.
a. Each 15 degree band of longitude is assigned to a standard _____________.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is...
1. Located at the _____________ (0^0 longitude)
a. Passes through Royal Observatory at __________________.
2. Master reference time for all points on Earth.
- prime meridian
- Greenwich, England
The International Date Line is....
1. Located at _________________.
a. Position deviates from 180 degrees longitude at times to accommodate various nearby nationstates.
2. Point you move the clock back 24 hours one day), if you are heading _____________ toward America.
3. Point you move the clock ahead 24 hours (one day), if you are heading ____________ toward Asia.
- 180 degrees longitude
Geographic Information Science (GIScience) involves the development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through ________ and other electronic information technologies.
Collecting Data: Remote Sensing
1. Acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a ____________ orbiting Earth or from other long distance methods is known as remote-sensing.
2. After sensors scan Earth's surface, the individual pixels are transmitted to a receiving station on Earth where a computer assembles each of them into an ____________.
3. Map created using remotely sensed data is essentially a grid of rows and columns of pixels; each representing the radiation being reflected on Earth's surface at a specific point.
Pinpointing Locations: GPS (Global Positioning System)
1. System that accurately determines the precise location of something on Earth.
2. GPS in the U.S. includes three elements
a. __________ placed in predetermined orbits.
b. ________________ to monitor and control satellites.
c. _____________ that can locate at least four satellites, figure out its distance from each, and use the information to calculate its precise location.
- a. satellite
- b. tracking stations
- c. reciever
- a. navigation (sailing and such)
- b. recreation (Pokemon Go)
- c. Geo tagging
- d. Guide weapons (missels, bombs, and things)
Layering Data: GIS
1. A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays ________________.
2. Data are stored in ___________.
3. Layers can be compared to show ______________ among different kinds of information.
4. Data can be overlaid in one GIS from a variety of different sources through a process known as a ____________.
- 1. geographic data
- 2. layers
- 3. relationships
- 4. mashup