Key Issue #1: How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

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  1. Geography is the study of ________ things are found on Earth's surface and the ___________ for the locations.
    • where
    • reasons
  2. Human geographers ask three questions... 
    • 1. Where are people and activities found on Earth?
    • 2. Why are they found here?
    • 3. So what?
  3. A map is a ____________ or ___________ model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
    • two-dimensionsal¬†
    • flat-scale
  4. ____________ is the science of mapmaking.
  5. Maps serve two purposes...

    1. As a _______________ to identify an object's ___________ and _____________ location. 
    2. As a ________________ to convey the distribution of ____________ or physical features.
    • 1. reference tool
    • ¬† ¬† absolute
    • ¬† ¬† relative

    • 2. Communications Tool
    • ¬† ¬† Human Activities
    • ¬† ¬† Physical Features
  6. Earliest maps were reference tool- simple _______________ to show a traveler how to get from Point A to Point B.
    Navigation devices
  7. The first world map was prepared by ______________ 276-194 B.C.)
       1. Improvements to world map were later made by __________.
       2. After that (referring to the question before), advancements in cartography primarily made outside of Europe by __________ and ___________ world.
       3. Mapmaking revived during the ____________________.
    • Eratosthenes¬†
    • Ptolemy
    • Chinese
    • Islamic
    • *Age of Exploration and Discovery
  8. Level of detail and the amount of area covered on the map depend on its ___________.
    Map Scale
  9. Relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on Earth.
       1. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
       2. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
    • 1. small
    • ¬† ¬† larger
    • 2. large
    • ¬† ¬† smaller

    *Backwards from how you would think it would work.
  10. Map scale is presented in three ways...
       1.____________: Ex. 1:24,000 or 1/24,000
    a. Number on left is one unit of distance while the number on the right represents the same unit of distance on Earth's surface.
       2. ___________: Ex. 1 inch equals 1 mile
    a. Number on left is one unite of distance, while the number on the right represents a different unit of distance on Earth;s surface.
       3. _____________: Ussually consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface.
    a. Distance between two points can be overlaid on the scarle ar bar to determin3 ht distance on Earth's surface.
    • 1. Ratio or Fraction Scale
    • 2. Written Scale
    • 3. Graphic Scale
  11. The earth is nearly a ________and best represented on a __________.
    • sphere
    • globe

    • Causes several problems:
    • a. Small globe is difficult to rite on, photocopy, display on a computer screen, etc.
    • b. Large globe is bulky or cumbersome to use.
  12. A _____________ is the scientific method of transferring locations on the Earth's surface to a ___________.
    • projection
    • flat map
  13. Problems for Projections

    1. ALL projections suffer from ___________.
    2. __________ of an area can be distorted, so it appears more elongated or squat than in reality.
    3. __________ between two points may become increased or descreased.
    4. ______________ of different areas may be altered, so that one are may appear larger than another on a mao but is in reality smaller.
    5. _____________ from one place to another can be distorted.
    • distortion
    • shape
    • distance
    • relative size
    • direction
  14. Mercator Projection

    1. Distorts: __________________
    2. Maintains: _________________
    3. Strengths: 
    4. Weaknesses:
       a. You rarely see Mercator projections showing all the way to the poles beacuase it is so _____________ at the poles.
       b. Africa is actually _______ larger than Greenland.
       c. Antarctica is only the _______ largest continent, not ginormous.
    • distance, shape, and relative size.
    • direction

    • a. navigating the ocean
    • b. not much else (unless you count being rectangular).

    • a. distorted
    • b. 14 times
    • c. 5th
  15. Robinson Projection

    1. Distorts: _____________ (but only a little).
    2. Maintains: Nothing! (It's a compromise).
    3. Strengths: 
       a. Still distorted at _________, but as you move towards the _____________, it quickly becomes much less distorted.
       *And who really cares about the poles anyway? (REALLY, not too many people do)
       *As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing great. 
    4. Weaknesses:
       a. As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing superb.

    • a. poles
    • a. equator
  16. Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection

    1. Distorts: Most obviously, the surface of the Earth is not divided into _________, also distance, direction, shape.
    2. Maintains: ______________
    3. Strengths:
       a. Very useful in _______ geography because of lack of concern about the _______.
       b. Thematic maps about language, population, or government.
       c. Or it can be great for ocean geography too!
    4. Weaknesses
       a. The "_______________" problem is obvious- the map is not ________________.
    • chunks
    • Relative Size

    • a. human
    • a. ocean

    • a. orange peel
    • a. continuous
  17. Geographic grid is a system of imaginary _______ drawn in a grid pattern on EArth's surface.
  18. _________ are arcs drawn between the North and South poles. Each is numbered according to a system known as ___________.
    • Meridians
    • longitude
  19. Values range from 0^0 (________________) to 180^0 east or west longitude.
    prime meridian
  20. _____________ are arcs drawn parallel to the equator and at right angles to meridians. Each is numbered, according to a system known as __________.
    • Parallels
    • latitude
  21. Points on Earth's surface can be communicated by referencing points of _______________ and ________________ intersection.
    • latitude
    • longitude
  22. Values range from 0^0 (equator) to 90^0 north or south.
  23. Further accuracy can be achieved by dividing each degree into 60 ___________ and each minute into 60 __________.
    • minutes
    • seconds
  24. Earth as a sphere is divided into 360 degrees of longitude.
       1. Divide 360 degrees by 24 time zones (one for each hour of day) equals ______.
           a. Each 15 degree band of longitude is assigned to a standard _____________.
    • 15 degrees
    • time zone
  25. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is...
       1. Located at the _____________ (0^0 longitude)
           a. Passes through Royal Observatory at __________________.
       2. Master reference time for all points on Earth.
    • prime meridian
    • Greenwich, England
  26. The International Date Line is....
       1. Located at _________________.
           a. Position deviates from 180 degrees longitude at times to accommodate various nearby nationstates.
       2. Point you move the clock back 24 hours one day), if you are heading _____________ toward America.
       3. Point you move the clock ahead 24 hours (one day), if you are heading ____________ toward Asia.
    • 180 degrees longitude
    • eastward
    • westward
  27. Geographic Information Science (GIScience) involves the development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through ________ and other electronic information technologies.
  28. Collecting Data: Remote Sensing

    1. Acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a ____________ orbiting Earth or from other long distance methods is known as remote-sensing.
    2. After sensors scan Earth's surface, the individual pixels are transmitted to a receiving station on Earth where a computer assembles each of them into an ____________.
    3. Map created using remotely sensed data is essentially a grid of rows and columns of pixels; each representing the radiation being reflected on Earth's surface at a specific point.
    • satellite¬†
    • satellite
    • image
  29. Pinpointing Locations: GPS (Global Positioning System)

    1. System that accurately determines the precise location of something on Earth.
    2. GPS in the U.S. includes three elements
           a. __________ placed in predetermined orbits.
           b. ________________ to monitor and control satellites.
           c. _____________ that can locate at least four satellites, figure out its distance from each, and use the information to calculate its precise location.
    3. Applications
           b. ________________
           d. ________________
    • a. satellite¬†
    • b. tracking stations
    • c. reciever¬†

    • a. navigation (sailing and such)
    • b. recreation (Pokemon Go)
    • c. Geo tagging
    • d. Guide weapons (missels, bombs, and things)
  30. Layering Data: GIS

    1. A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays ________________.
    2. Data are stored in ___________.
    3. Layers can be compared to show ______________ among different kinds of information.
    4. Data can be overlaid in one GIS from a variety of different sources through a process known as a ____________.
    • 1. geographic data
    • 2. layers
    • 3. relationships¬†
    • 4. mashup
Card Set:
Key Issue #1: How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
2017-08-13 20:28:29
AP Geography CHS
AP Georgraphy
Tell me the story, the story of how the sun loved the moon so much... so much that the sun died every night just to let the moon breathe...ūüíú
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