# Key Issue #1: How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

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1. Geography is the study of ________ things are found on Earth's surface and the ___________ for the locations.
• where
• reasons
2. Human geographers ask three questions...
1.
2.
3.
• 1. Where are people and activities found on Earth?
• 2. Why are they found here?
• 3. So what?
3. A map is a ____________ or ___________ model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
• two-dimensionsal
• flat-scale
4. ____________ is the science of mapmaking.
Cartography
5. Maps serve two purposes...

1. As a _______________ to identify an object's ___________ and _____________ location.
2. As a ________________ to convey the distribution of ____________ or physical features.
• 1. reference tool
•     absolute
•     relative

• 2. Communications Tool
•     Human Activities
•     Physical Features
6. Earliest maps were reference tool- simple _______________ to show a traveler how to get from Point A to Point B.
7. The first world map was prepared by ______________ 276-194 B.C.)
1. Improvements to world map were later made by __________.
2. After that (referring to the question before), advancements in cartography primarily made outside of Europe by __________ and ___________ world.
3. Mapmaking revived during the ____________________.
• Eratosthenes
• Ptolemy
• Chinese
• Islamic
• *Age of Exploration and Discovery
8. Level of detail and the amount of area covered on the map depend on its ___________.
Map Scale
9. Relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on Earth.
1. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
2. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
• 1. small
•     larger
• 2. large
•     smaller

*Backwards from how you would think it would work.
10. Map scale is presented in three ways...
1.____________: Ex. 1:24,000 or 1/24,000
a. Number on left is one unit of distance while the number on the right represents the same unit of distance on Earth's surface.
2. ___________: Ex. 1 inch equals 1 mile
a. Number on left is one unite of distance, while the number on the right represents a different unit of distance on Earth;s surface.
3. _____________: Ussually consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface.
a. Distance between two points can be overlaid on the scarle ar bar to determin3 ht distance on Earth's surface.
• 1. Ratio or Fraction Scale
• 2. Written Scale
• 3. Graphic Scale
11. The earth is nearly a ________and best represented on a __________.
• sphere
• globe

• Causes several problems:
• a. Small globe is difficult to rite on, photocopy, display on a computer screen, etc.
• b. Large globe is bulky or cumbersome to use.
12. A _____________ is the scientific method of transferring locations on the Earth's surface to a ___________.
• projection
• flat map
13. Problems for Projections

1. ALL projections suffer from ___________.
2. __________ of an area can be distorted, so it appears more elongated or squat than in reality.
3. __________ between two points may become increased or descreased.
4. ______________ of different areas may be altered, so that one are may appear larger than another on a mao but is in reality smaller.
5. _____________ from one place to another can be distorted.
• distortion
• shape
• distance
• relative size
• direction
14. Mercator Projection

1. Distorts: __________________
2. Maintains: _________________
3. Strengths:
a.__________
b.__________
4. Weaknesses:
a. You rarely see Mercator projections showing all the way to the poles beacuase it is so _____________ at the poles.
b. Africa is actually _______ larger than Greenland.
c. Antarctica is only the _______ largest continent, not ginormous.
• distance, shape, and relative size.
• direction

• a. navigating the ocean
• b. not much else (unless you count being rectangular).

• a. distorted
• b. 14 times
• c. 5th
15. Robinson Projection

1. Distorts: _____________ (but only a little).
2. Maintains: Nothing! (It's a compromise).
3. Strengths:
a. Still distorted at _________, but as you move towards the _____________, it quickly becomes much less distorted.
*And who really cares about the poles anyway? (REALLY, not too many people do)
*As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing great.
4. Weaknesses:
a. As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing superb.
EVERYTHING

• a. poles
• a. equator
16. Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection

1. Distorts: Most obviously, the surface of the Earth is not divided into _________, also distance, direction, shape.
2. Maintains: ______________
3. Strengths:
a. Very useful in _______ geography because of lack of concern about the _______.
b. Thematic maps about language, population, or government.
c. Or it can be great for ocean geography too!
4. Weaknesses
a. The "_______________" problem is obvious- the map is not ________________.
• chunks
• Relative Size

• a. human
• a. ocean

• a. orange peel
• a. continuous
17. Geographic grid is a system of imaginary _______ drawn in a grid pattern on EArth's surface.
arcs
18. _________ are arcs drawn between the North and South poles. Each is numbered according to a system known as ___________.
• Meridians
• longitude
19. Values range from 0^0 (________________) to 180^0 east or west longitude.
prime meridian
20. _____________ are arcs drawn parallel to the equator and at right angles to meridians. Each is numbered, according to a system known as __________.
• Parallels
• latitude
21. Points on Earth's surface can be communicated by referencing points of _______________ and ________________ intersection.
• latitude
• longitude
22. Values range from 0^0 (equator) to 90^0 north or south.
equator
23. Further accuracy can be achieved by dividing each degree into 60 ___________ and each minute into 60 __________.
• minutes
• seconds
24. Earth as a sphere is divided into 360 degrees of longitude.
1. Divide 360 degrees by 24 time zones (one for each hour of day) equals ______.
a. Each 15 degree band of longitude is assigned to a standard _____________.
• 15 degrees
• time zone
25. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is...
1. Located at the _____________ (0^0 longitude)
a. Passes through Royal Observatory at __________________.
2. Master reference time for all points on Earth.
• prime meridian
• Greenwich, England
26. The International Date Line is....
1. Located at _________________.
a. Position deviates from 180 degrees longitude at times to accommodate various nearby nationstates.
2. Point you move the clock back 24 hours one day), if you are heading _____________ toward America.
3. Point you move the clock ahead 24 hours (one day), if you are heading ____________ toward Asia.
• 180 degrees longitude
• eastward
• westward
27. Geographic Information Science (GIScience) involves the development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through ________ and other electronic information technologies.
satellite
28. Collecting Data: Remote Sensing

1. Acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a ____________ orbiting Earth or from other long distance methods is known as remote-sensing.
2. After sensors scan Earth's surface, the individual pixels are transmitted to a receiving station on Earth where a computer assembles each of them into an ____________.
3. Map created using remotely sensed data is essentially a grid of rows and columns of pixels; each representing the radiation being reflected on Earth's surface at a specific point.
• satellite
• satellite
• image
29. Pinpointing Locations: GPS (Global Positioning System)

1. System that accurately determines the precise location of something on Earth.
2. GPS in the U.S. includes three elements
a. __________ placed in predetermined orbits.
b. ________________ to monitor and control satellites.
c. _____________ that can locate at least four satellites, figure out its distance from each, and use the information to calculate its precise location.
3. Applications
a._______________
b. ________________
c._______________
d. ________________
• a. satellite
• b. tracking stations
• c. reciever

• a. navigation (sailing and such)
• b. recreation (Pokemon Go)
• c. Geo tagging
• d. Guide weapons (missels, bombs, and things)
30. Layering Data: GIS

1. A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays ________________.
2. Data are stored in ___________.
3. Layers can be compared to show ______________ among different kinds of information.
4. Data can be overlaid in one GIS from a variety of different sources through a process known as a ____________.
• 1. geographic data
• 2. layers
• 3. relationships
• 4. mashup

## Card Set Information

 Author: dearmaria1 ID: 333489 Filename: Key Issue #1: How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are? Updated: 2017-08-13 20:28:29 Tags: AP Geography CHS Folders: AP Georgraphy Description: Tell me the story, the story of how the sun loved the moon so much... so much that the sun died every night just to let the moon breathe...💜 Show Answers:

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