Key Issue #1: How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?

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  1. Geography is the study of ________ things are found on Earth's surface and the ___________ for the locations.
    • where
    • reasons
  2. Human geographers ask three questions... 
    1.
    2.
    3.
    • 1. Where are people and activities found on Earth?
    • 2. Why are they found here?
    • 3. So what?
  3. A map is a ____________ or ___________ model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
    • two-dimensionsal¬†
    • flat-scale
  4. ____________ is the science of mapmaking.
    Cartography
  5. Maps serve two purposes...

    1. As a _______________ to identify an object's ___________ and _____________ location. 
    2. As a ________________ to convey the distribution of ____________ or physical features.
    • 1. reference tool
    • ¬† ¬† absolute
    • ¬† ¬† relative

    • 2. Communications Tool
    • ¬† ¬† Human Activities
    • ¬† ¬† Physical Features
  6. Earliest maps were reference tool- simple _______________ to show a traveler how to get from Point A to Point B.
    Navigation devices
  7. The first world map was prepared by ______________ 276-194 B.C.)
       1. Improvements to world map were later made by __________.
       2. After that (referring to the question before), advancements in cartography primarily made outside of Europe by __________ and ___________ world.
       3. Mapmaking revived during the ____________________.
    • Eratosthenes¬†
    • Ptolemy
    • Chinese
    • Islamic
    • *Age of Exploration and Discovery
  8. Level of detail and the amount of area covered on the map depend on its ___________.
    Map Scale
  9. Relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on Earth.
       1. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
       2. A ________ scale map shows a _________ area of the Earth.
    • 1. small
    • ¬† ¬† larger
    • 2. large
    • ¬† ¬† smaller

    *Backwards from how you would think it would work.
  10. Map scale is presented in three ways...
       1.____________: Ex. 1:24,000 or 1/24,000
    a. Number on left is one unit of distance while the number on the right represents the same unit of distance on Earth's surface.
       2. ___________: Ex. 1 inch equals 1 mile
    a. Number on left is one unite of distance, while the number on the right represents a different unit of distance on Earth;s surface.
       3. _____________: Ussually consists of a bar line marked to show distance on Earth's surface.
    a. Distance between two points can be overlaid on the scarle ar bar to determin3 ht distance on Earth's surface.
    • 1. Ratio or Fraction Scale
    • 2. Written Scale
    • 3. Graphic Scale
  11. The earth is nearly a ________and best represented on a __________.
    • sphere
    • globe

    • Causes several problems:
    • a. Small globe is difficult to rite on, photocopy, display on a computer screen, etc.
    • b. Large globe is bulky or cumbersome to use.
  12. A _____________ is the scientific method of transferring locations on the Earth's surface to a ___________.
    • projection
    • flat map
  13. Problems for Projections

    1. ALL projections suffer from ___________.
    2. __________ of an area can be distorted, so it appears more elongated or squat than in reality.
    3. __________ between two points may become increased or descreased.
    4. ______________ of different areas may be altered, so that one are may appear larger than another on a mao but is in reality smaller.
    5. _____________ from one place to another can be distorted.
    • distortion
    • shape
    • distance
    • relative size
    • direction
  14. Mercator Projection

    1. Distorts: __________________
    2. Maintains: _________________
    3. Strengths: 
       a.__________
       b.__________
    4. Weaknesses:
       a. You rarely see Mercator projections showing all the way to the poles beacuase it is so _____________ at the poles.
       b. Africa is actually _______ larger than Greenland.
       c. Antarctica is only the _______ largest continent, not ginormous.
    • distance, shape, and relative size.
    • direction

    • a. navigating the ocean
    • b. not much else (unless you count being rectangular).

    • a. distorted
    • b. 14 times
    • c. 5th
  15. Robinson Projection

    1. Distorts: _____________ (but only a little).
    2. Maintains: Nothing! (It's a compromise).
    3. Strengths: 
       a. Still distorted at _________, but as you move towards the _____________, it quickly becomes much less distorted.
       *And who really cares about the poles anyway? (REALLY, not too many people do)
       *As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing great. 
    4. Weaknesses:
       a. As a compromise it does everything pretty well, but nothing superb.
    EVERYTHING 

    • a. poles
    • a. equator
  16. Interrupted Goode Homolosine Projection

    1. Distorts: Most obviously, the surface of the Earth is not divided into _________, also distance, direction, shape.
    2. Maintains: ______________
    3. Strengths:
       a. Very useful in _______ geography because of lack of concern about the _______.
       b. Thematic maps about language, population, or government.
       c. Or it can be great for ocean geography too!
    4. Weaknesses
       a. The "_______________" problem is obvious- the map is not ________________.
    • chunks
    • Relative Size

    • a. human
    • a. ocean

    • a. orange peel
    • a. continuous
  17. Geographic grid is a system of imaginary _______ drawn in a grid pattern on EArth's surface.
    arcs
  18. _________ are arcs drawn between the North and South poles. Each is numbered according to a system known as ___________.
    • Meridians
    • longitude
  19. Values range from 0^0 (________________) to 180^0 east or west longitude.
    prime meridian
  20. _____________ are arcs drawn parallel to the equator and at right angles to meridians. Each is numbered, according to a system known as __________.
    • Parallels
    • latitude
  21. Points on Earth's surface can be communicated by referencing points of _______________ and ________________ intersection.
    • latitude
    • longitude
  22. Values range from 0^0 (equator) to 90^0 north or south.
    equator
  23. Further accuracy can be achieved by dividing each degree into 60 ___________ and each minute into 60 __________.
    • minutes
    • seconds
  24. Earth as a sphere is divided into 360 degrees of longitude.
       1. Divide 360 degrees by 24 time zones (one for each hour of day) equals ______.
           a. Each 15 degree band of longitude is assigned to a standard _____________.
    • 15 degrees
    • time zone
  25. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is...
       1. Located at the _____________ (0^0 longitude)
           a. Passes through Royal Observatory at __________________.
       2. Master reference time for all points on Earth.
    • prime meridian
    • Greenwich, England
  26. The International Date Line is....
       1. Located at _________________.
           a. Position deviates from 180 degrees longitude at times to accommodate various nearby nationstates.
       2. Point you move the clock back 24 hours one day), if you are heading _____________ toward America.
       3. Point you move the clock ahead 24 hours (one day), if you are heading ____________ toward Asia.
    • 180 degrees longitude
    • eastward
    • westward
  27. Geographic Information Science (GIScience) involves the development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through ________ and other electronic information technologies.
    satellite
  28. Collecting Data: Remote Sensing

    1. Acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a ____________ orbiting Earth or from other long distance methods is known as remote-sensing.
    2. After sensors scan Earth's surface, the individual pixels are transmitted to a receiving station on Earth where a computer assembles each of them into an ____________.
    3. Map created using remotely sensed data is essentially a grid of rows and columns of pixels; each representing the radiation being reflected on Earth's surface at a specific point.
    • satellite¬†
    • satellite
    • image
  29. Pinpointing Locations: GPS (Global Positioning System)

    1. System that accurately determines the precise location of something on Earth.
    2. GPS in the U.S. includes three elements
           a. __________ placed in predetermined orbits.
           b. ________________ to monitor and control satellites.
           c. _____________ that can locate at least four satellites, figure out its distance from each, and use the information to calculate its precise location.
    3. Applications
           a._______________
           b. ________________
           c._______________
           d. ________________
    • a. satellite¬†
    • b. tracking stations
    • c. reciever¬†

    • a. navigation (sailing and such)
    • b. recreation (Pokemon Go)
    • c. Geo tagging
    • d. Guide weapons (missels, bombs, and things)
  30. Layering Data: GIS

    1. A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system that captures, stores, queries, analyzes, and displays ________________.
    2. Data are stored in ___________.
    3. Layers can be compared to show ______________ among different kinds of information.
    4. Data can be overlaid in one GIS from a variety of different sources through a process known as a ____________.
    • 1. geographic data
    • 2. layers
    • 3. relationships¬†
    • 4. mashup

Card Set Information

Author:
dearmaria1
ID:
333489
Filename:
Key Issue #1: How Do Geographers Describe Where Things Are?
Updated:
2017-08-13 20:28:29
Tags:
AP Geography CHS
Folders:
AP Georgraphy
Description:
Tell me the story, the story of how the sun loved the moon so much... so much that the sun died every night just to let the moon breathe...ūüíú
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